Objective—To measure and compare synovial fluid
antibody titers to type-I and -II collagen in stifle joints
with instability caused by complete or partial cranial
cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture and joints with
osteoarthrosis secondary to other pathologic changes
Animals—82 dogs with diseased stifle joints.
Procedure—Synovial fluid samples were collected
from 7 dogs with clinically normal stifles (control
group) and 82 dogs with diseased joints (50 stifle
joints with complete rupture of the CCL, 20 with partial
damage of the CCL, and 12 joints with radiographic
signs of osteoarthritis secondary to other
arthropathies). Synovial fluid samples were tested for
autoantibodies to type-I and -II collagen by an ELISA.
Results—In dogs with complete and partial CCL rupture,
synovial fluid antibody titers to type-I and -II collagen
were significantly increased, compared with
control dogs. Forty-eight percent (24/50) of samples
from dogs with complete CCL rupture and 35% (7/20)
of samples from dogs with partial CCL rupture had
antibody titers to type-I collagen that were greater
than the mean plus 2 standard deviations of the control
group titers. Synovial fluid antibody titers to type-
II collagen were high in 40% of the dogs with partial
or (8/20) complete (20/50) CCL rupture. Dogs with
osteoarthrosis secondary to other pathologic changes
had significantly increased synovial fluid antibodies to
type-I and -II collagen, compared with control dogs.
Conclusion—Increases in autoantibodies to collagen
in synovial fluid are not specific for the type of joint
disorder. It is unlikely that the anticollagen antibodies
play an active role in the initiation of weakening of the
CCL. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1456–1461)
Objective—To test a modified saline (0.9% NaCl)
solution joint washing (lavage) technique that includes
the use of vitamin B12 as an internal marker for the
evaluation of synovial fluid dilution in lavage samples
from canine joints.
Sample Population—9 plasma samples obtained
from blood samples of 9 healthy dogs and 9 synovial
fluid samples aspirated from stifle joints of 9 cadaveric
Procedure—Photometric absorbances of 25% vitamin
B12 solution, canine synovial fluid, and canine
plasma were measured in a spectrophotometer to
establish an optimal wavelength for analysis. Canine
synovial fluid and plasma samples were mixed with
the 25% vitamin B12 solution to obtain 1%, 3%, 5%,
10%, 20%, and 50% solutions of synovial fluid or
plasma. Diluted synovial fluid and plasma samples
were used to simulate joint lavage samples and to
examine the possible interference of these substances
(synovial fluid or plasma) with the
absorbance of the 25% vitamin B12 solution in photometric
Results—The optimal wavelength was found to be at
550 nm. Canine synovial fluid and plasma samples did
not interfere with the absorbance measurements of
the 25% vitamin B12 solution up to a 50% dilution of
plasma or synovial fluid.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The modified
saline solution joint lavage method with the use of a
25% vitamin B12 solution as an internal standard provides
an accurate and reliable technique for the evaluation
of synovial fluid dilution in lavage samples from
canine joints. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1903–1906)
Objective—To evaluate anticollagen type I antibodies in synovial fluid of the affected stifle joint, the contralateral stifle joint, and the left shoulder joint of dogs with unilateral cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) rupture during an extended period of 12 to 18 months.
Animals—13 client-owned dogs with CrCL rupture and 2 sham-operated dogs.
Procedures—All dogs were examined and arthrocentesis of all 3 joints was performed every 6 months after surgery. Synovial fluid samples were tested for anticollagen type I antibodies by use of an ELISA.
Results—Dogs with partial CrCL rupture had higher antibody titers than dogs with complete rupture. Six of 13 dogs ruptured the contralateral CrCL during the study, whereby higher antibody titers were found for the stifle joints than for the shoulder joint. Seronegative dogs or dogs with extremely low antibody titers and 2 dogs with high antibody titers did not sustain a CrCL rupture in the contralateral stifle joint.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In most dogs that had a CrCL rupture of the contralateral stifle joint, a distinct antibody titer gradient toward the stifle joints was detected, suggesting that there was a local inflammatory process in these joints. However, only a small number of sham-operated dogs were used to calculate the cutoff values used to determine the anticollagen type I antibody titers in these patients. Synovial fluid antibodies against collagen type I alone do not initiate CrCL rupture because not all dogs with high antibody titers sustained a CrCL rupture in the contralateral stifle joint.
Objective—To examine mRNA expression of cytokines in synovial fluid (SF) cells from dogs with cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) rupture and medial patellar luxation (MPL) and determine mRNA expression for 3 joints (affected stifle, unaffected contralateral stifle, and left shoulder joints) in dogs with unilateral CrCL rupture.
Sample Population—29 stifle joints with CrCL rupture (29 dogs), 8 stifle joints with MPL (7 dogs), and 24 normal stifle joints (16 clinically normal dogs).
Procedures—Immediately before reconstructive surgery, SF was aspirated from the cruciate-deficient stifle joint or stifle joint with MPL. Fourteen of 29 dogs had unilateral CrCL rupture; SF was also aspirated from the unaffected contralateral stifle joint and left shoulder joint. Those 14 dogs were examined 6 and 12 months after reconstructive surgery. Total RNA was extracted from SF cells and reverse transcription–PCR assay was performed to obtain cDNA. Canine-specific cytokine mRNA expression was determined by use of a real-time PCR assay.
Results—Interleukin (IL)-8 and -10 and interferon-G expression differed significantly between dogs with arthropathies and dogs with normal stifle joints. For the 14 dogs with unilateral CrCL rupture, a significant difference was found for IL-8 expression. Before reconstructive surgery, IL-8 expression differed significantly between the affected stifle joint and left shoulder joint or contralateral stifle joint. Six months after surgery, IL-8 expression was significantly increased in the unaffected contralateral stifle joint, compared with the shoulder joint.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—No conclusions can be made regarding the role of the examined cytokines in initiation of CrCL disease.
Objective—To determine the in vitro structural and
material properties of braided, multifilament, nonabsorbable
polyester tapes, used for intra-articular stabilization
of cranial cruciate ligament- (CCL-) deficient
stifle joints in dogs, and compare those with properties
of multifilament polyamide tapes.
Sample Population—30 polyester tapes (width, 4
mm), 10 polyester tapes (width, 7 mm), and 30
polyamide tapes (width, 4 mm) were tested to failure.
Cyclic loading experiments were also performed,
using 3 polyester tapes of each width.
Procedure—Tapes were mounted in a tensile tester
as single loops, simulating intra-operative conditions,
and elongated to failure at 1,000 mm/min.
Additionally, the behavior of polyester tapes was tested
at different elongation rates. In a second series of
experiments, biomechanical variables of the polyester
tapes were measured after 25 sets of 2,000 cycles
between physiologic force limits.
Results—Mean (± SD) ultimate loads of the 4-mm
wide polyamide tapes, 4-mm wide polyester tapes,
and 7-mm wide polyester tapes were 266.48 ± 13.19
301.78 ± 16.92, and 726.40 ± 37.74 N, respectively.
Corresponding stiffnesses were 15.57 ± 0.49, 21.63 ±
2.19, and 34.85 ± 2.66 N/mm, respectively. Failure
properties of polyester tapes were affected by previous
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Polyester
tapes of 4- or 7-mm widths should be able to resist
forces resulting from weight bearing in dogs, suggesting
that these tapes will be effective for stabilization
of the stifle joint in dogs with a ruptured CCL.
( Am J Vet Res 2001;62:48–53)
Case Description—A 5.5-month-old female domestic longhair cat was examined because of dorsal deviation of the caudal aspect of the sternum and progressively worsening dyspnea during play activities.
Clinical Findings—A diagnosis of pectus excavatum was made clinically and confirmed radiographically. The cardiac silhouette was shifted into the right hemithorax. The vertebral index (VI) and frontosagittal index (FSI), which are radiographic indices used to grade the extent of the deformity, were 5.2 and 3.0, respectively. Minimum thoracic height was 13 mm at this time.
Treatment and Outcome—The sternal malposition was corrected during surgery; for stabilization, an internal splint was provided by use of a plate that was applied to the ventral side of the sternum. Radiographic indices improved until day 85; at that time, an increase in the distance between plate and sternum was detected, and plate removal was advised. The radiographic indices improved again after plate removal. At 310 days after surgery, VI was 9.6, FSI was 1.6, and minimum thoracic height was 34 mm. No dyspnea was evident during physical examination.
Clinical Relevance—Results of treatment suggest that this technique may be useful as an alternative surgical option for cats with pectus excavatum that have a noncompliant sternum.
To report the presence of urolithiasis in dogs long-term after gradual attenuation of congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (cEHPSS).
25 client-owned dogs that underwent gradual attenuation of a cEHPSS, of which 19 had a closed cEHPSS and 6 developed multiple acquired portosystemic shunts (MAPSS) following surgery.
A retrospective study with prospective follow-up was performed. Dogs that underwent cEHPSS surgery and had their postoperative cEHPSS status determined by transsplenic portal scintigraphy or CT angiography 3 months postoperatively were prospectively contacted and invited for a long-term follow-up visit (a minimum of 6 months postoperatively). Retrospective data were collected, and during the prospective follow-up visit a thorough history, blood tests and urinalysis, and ultrasonography of the urinary tract were performed to assess the presence of urinary signs and urolithiasis.
Of 25 included dogs, 1 of 19 (5%) dogs with closed cEHPSS and 4 of 6 (67%) dogs with MAPSS had urolithiasis at long-term follow-up. Three (50%) dogs with MAPSS developed new uroliths. Long-term, dogs with closed cEHPSS that initially presented with and without urolithiasis had significantly less urolithiasis compared to dogs with MAPSS (P = .013 and P = .010, respectively). In the 4 dogs with closed cEHPSS that initially presented with nephrolithiasis, nephroliths became smaller or were no longer visible at the long-term follow-up visit.
Dogs that developed MAPSS following cEHPSS surgery are at greater risk of urolithiasis compared to those with closed cEHPSS. Furthermore, ammonium urate uroliths might dissolve if portosystemic shunting ceases to exist.
OBJECTIVE To compare ammonia concentrations in arterial blood, venous blood, and CSF samples of dogs with and without extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (EHPSS).
ANIMALS 19 dogs with congenital EHPSS and 6 healthy control dogs.
PROCEDURES All dogs underwent a physical examination and then were anesthetized for transsplenic portal scintigraphy to confirm the presence or absence of EHPSS. While dogs were anesthetized, arterial and venous blood samples and a CSF sample were simultaneously collected for determination of ammonia concentration, which was measured by use of a portable blood ammonia analyzer (device A) and a nonportable biochemical analyzer (device B). Results were compared between dogs with EHPSS and control dogs.
RESULTS Arterial, venous, and CSF ammonia concentrations for dogs with EHPSS were significantly greater than those for control dogs. For dogs with EHPSS, ammonia concentrations in both arterial and venous blood samples were markedly increased from the reference range. There was a strong positive correlation between arterial and venous ammonia concentrations and between blood (arterial or venous) and CSF ammonia concentrations.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that blood and CSF ammonia concentrations in dogs with EHPSS were greater than those for healthy dogs and were strongly and positively correlated, albeit in a nonlinear manner. This suggested that the permeability of the blood-brain barrier to ammonia may be abnormally increased in dogs with EHPSS, but further investigation of the relationship between blood or CSF ammonia concentration and clinical signs of hepatic encephalopathy or the surgical outcome for dogs with EHPSS is warranted.
To determine survival time and quality of life of dogs that developed postattenuation neurologic signs (PANS) after surgical treatment of a single congenital portosystemic shunt and survived at least 30 days and identify whether neurologic signs present at the time of discharge would resolve or reoccur.
50 client-owned dogs.
Medical records were retrospectively reviewed, and follow-up data relating to neurologic signs and seizure activity were obtained. Owners were asked to complete a questionnaire related to the presence of neurologic signs, including seizures, and their dog’s quality of life.
Thirty of the 50 (60%) dogs had postattenuation seizures with or without other nonseizure neurologic signs, and 20 (40%) had neurologic signs other than seizures. Neurologic signs had fully resolved by the time of discharge in 24 (48%) dogs. Signs resolved in 18 of the remaining 26 (69%) dogs that still had PANS other than seizures at the time of discharge. Seizures reoccurred in 15 of the 30 dogs that had postattenuation seizures. Twenty-seven of 33 (82%) owners graded their dog’s long-term (> 30 days after surgery) quality-of-life as high. Forty-five (90%) dogs survived > 6 months. Most (29/43 [67%]) neurologic signs (other than seizures) present at the time of hospital discharge resolved.
Findings highlighted that survival times of > 6 months and a high QOL can be achieved in most dogs with PANS that survive at least 30 days. Most neurologic signs other than seizures resolved within 1 month postoperatively. Half of the dogs with postattenuation seizures had a reoccurrence.