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  • Author or Editor: Hilde E. V. De Cock x
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Abstract

Objective–To determine detection rates for feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1), Mycoplasma spp, fungi, and bacteria in flush samples and biopsy specimens from the nasal cavities of cats with and without chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS).

Design–Prospective study.

Animals–10 CRS-affected cats and 7 cats without signs of respiratory tract disease.

Procedures–Nasal flush samples and biopsy specimens were collected from all cats for bacterial (aerobic and anaerobic), fungal, and mycoplasmal cultures; additional biopsy specimens were collected for virus isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay (to detect FHV-1 DNA).

Results–Aerobic bacteria were detected in flush samples from 5 of 7 control cats; culture of flush samples from CRS-affected cats yielded aerobic bacteria (9/10 cats), anaerobic bacteria (3/10), and Mycoplasma spp (2/10). No fungal organisms were isolated from any cat. Potential pathogens were isolated significantly more often from CRS-affected cats than from control cats. Bacterial culture of biopsy specimens yielded aerobic bacteria (2/7 control cats and 4/10 CRS-affected cats) and anaerobic bacteria (2/10 CRS-affected cats). Although FHV-1 was not detected in nasal biopsy specimens from control or CRS-affected cats, FHV-1 DNA was detected via PCR assay in specimens from 4 of 7 control cats and 3 of 10 CRS-affected cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance–Compared with findings in control cats, anaerobic bacteria, Mycoplasma spp, and a variety of potentially pathogenic organisms were detected more commonly in samples from cats with CRS. In both groups, FHV-1 was detected via PCR assay as a nonviable organism or in noncultivable amounts. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:579–585)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the correlation of cumulative rhinoscopic findings of hyperemia, mucus accumulation, and turbinate destruction with the type and severity of inflammatory infiltrates in nasal biopsy specimens of cats with or without upper respiratory tract disease.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—Cats with (n = 11) and without (6) upper respiratory tract disease and cats with unknown medical histories (27).

Procedures—Lesions of hyperemia, mucus accumulation, and turbinate destruction detected rhinoscopically were each scored (scale, 0 [absent] to 3 [severe]), and a cumulative rhinoscopic score for each nasal cavity was calculated. Fifty biopsy specimens were examined histologically, and inflammatory infiltrates (lymphoplasmacytic or neutrophilic) were graded as absent, mild, moderate, or severe. Cumulative rhinoscopic scores and inflammation grades were compared for each specimen-cavity combination.

Results—In cats of known disease status, there was a positive but weak correlation between cumulative rhinoscopic scores and inflammation grades in biopsy specimens. In cats of unknown disease status, there was no similar correlation. Biopsy specimens with minimal inflammation were commonly obtained from nasal cavities with low rhinoscopic scores; specimens with moderate or severe inflammatory changes were frequently obtained from cavities that appeared normal rhinoscopically. Type of inflammatory infiltrates was not correlated with rhinoscopic signs of inflammation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The correlation of rhinoscopic findings with inflammation severity in nasal biopsy specimens (determined histologically) was weak or lacking in cats of known and unknown disease status, respectively. Results indicated that rhinoscopy with biopsy provides more complete evaluation of nasal disease than rhinoscopy alone in cats. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225: 395–400)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess the use of a caudal external thoracic artery axial pattern flap to treat sternal cutaneous wounds in birds.

Animals—16 adult Japanese quail.

Procedure—A cutaneous defect in the region of the mid-sternum was surgically created in all quail. In 6 quail (group I), an axial pattern flap was created from the skin of the lateral aspect of the thorax and advanced over the sternal defect. In 8 quail (group II), a flap was similarly created and advanced but the flap vasculature was ligated. All quail were euthanatized at 14 days after surgery and had necropsies performed. Sections of the flap and the surrounding tissue were examined histologically to assess flap viability.

Results—All axial pattern flaps in group-I quail had 100% survival. In group II, mean percentage area of flap survival was 62.5%; mean area of necrosis and dermal fibrosis of flaps were significantly greater than that detected in group I. In flaps of group-II quail, neovascularization in the deep dermis and profound necrosis of the vascular plexus in the superficial dermis were observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the caudal external thoracic artery axial pattern flap could be used successfully in the treatment of surgically created sternal cutaneous defects in quail with no signs of tissue necrosis or adverse effects overall. Use of this technique to treat selfmutilation syndromes or application after surgical debulking of tumors or other masses might be beneficial in many avian species. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:497–502)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical signs and rhinoscopic, computed tomographic, and histologic abnormalities in dogs with idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—37 dogs.

Procedure—Clinical information was obtained from medical records. Nasal computed tomographic images and histologic slides of biopsy specimens were reviewed.

Results—Dogs ranged from 1.5 to 14 years old (mean, 8 years); most (28) were large-breed dogs. Nasal discharge was unilateral in 11 of 26 (42%) dogs and bilateral in 15 of 26 (58%) dogs. In dogs with unilateral disease, duration of clinical signs ranged from 1.5 to 36 months (mean, 8.25 months; median, 2 months), and in dogs with bilateral disease, duration of signs ranged from 1.25 to 30 months (mean, 6.5 months; median, 4 months). Computed tomography (n = 33) most often revealed fluid accumulation (27/33 [82%]), turbinate destruction (23/33 [70%]), and frontal sinus opacification (14/33 [42%]). Rhinoscopy (n = 37) commonly demonstrated increased mucus and epithelial inflammation; turbinate destruction was detected in 8 of 37 (22%) dogs. Bilateral biopsy specimens from all 37 dogs were examined. Four dogs had only unilateral inflammatory changes. The remaining 33 dogs had bilateral lesions; in 20, lesions were more severe on 1 side than the other.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings suggest that idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis is a key contributor to chronic nasal disease in dogs and may be more common than previously believed. In addition, findings suggest that idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis is most often a bilateral disease, even among dogs with unilateral nasal discharge. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004; 224:1952–1957)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To correlate gene transcription of cytokines and chemokines with histologic inflammation in nasal biopsy specimens of cats.

Animals—25 study cats and 4 specific pathogen–free cats.

Procedure—One nasal biopsy specimen from each cat was submitted for routine histologic evaluation; a second was submitted for evaluation by use of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis with a fluorogenic probe (ie, TaqMan) for detection of cytokines and chemokines (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 p40, IL-16, IL-18, interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, and the regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted [RANTES] protein). Specimens were grouped histologically by degree of inflammation (none, mild, moderate, or severe). Linearized TaqMan signals for each gene were compared among histologic groups.

Results—Nasal biopsy specimens from specific pathogen–free cats were histologically normal, and cytokine transcription was low in these samples. As nasal inflammation in study cats worsened from absent (n = 3) to mild (4) to moderate (8) or severe (10), progressively and significantly increasing transcription of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 p40, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and the RANTES protein was detected. Transcription of IL-4, IL- 5, IL-16, and IL-18 did not correlate with worsened histologic inflammation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Transcription of specific cytokines and chemokines in nasal tissue of cats progressively increased with severity of histologic evidence of inflammation, and IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 p40, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and the RANTES protein were markers of inflammation. Our data suggest that the nasal cavity of cats is biased toward a Th1 cytokine profile that is augmented by inflammation. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:996–1001)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare pathologic findings and results of adrenalectomy for adrenal gland tumors in dogs with and without vena caval tumor thrombi.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—40 dogs with adrenal gland tumors.

Procedure—Medical records were examined. An exact logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between tumor type or right-sided versus left-sided tumor involvement and development of caval tumor thrombi and associations between tumor thrombi, tumor type, or right- versus left-sided location and perioperative complications and mortality rate. Survival was compared between dogs with and without tumor thrombi.

Results—Caval thrombi were detected in 25% of dogs, including 3 of 28 (11%) dogs with an adrenocortical tumor and 6 of 11 dogs with a pheochromocytoma. A caval tumor thrombus was detected in 6 of 17 right-sided and 4 of 20 left-sided tumors. Sensitivity and specificity of abdominal ultrasonography for detection of caval thrombi were 80 and 90%, respectively. Intraoperative and postoperative complications developed in 15 and 51% of dogs, respectively. The mortality rate was 22%. There were no significant differences in perioperative morbidity and mortality rates between dogs with and without tumor thrombi.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Caval thrombi associated with adrenal gland tumors are amenable to adrenalectomy and thrombectomy without significantly increased perioperative morbidity and mortality rates, assuming the surgeon is experienced in appropriate techniques. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223: 654–662)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association