Objective–To determine detection rates for feline
herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1), Mycoplasma spp, fungi,
and bacteria in flush samples and biopsy specimens
from the nasal cavities of cats with and without chronic
Animals–10 CRS-affected cats and 7 cats without
signs of respiratory tract disease.
Procedures–Nasal flush samples and biopsy specimens
were collected from all cats for bacterial (aerobic
and anaerobic), fungal, and mycoplasmal cultures;
additional biopsy specimens were collected for virus
isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay
(to detect FHV-1 DNA).
Results–Aerobic bacteria were detected in flush samples
from 5 of 7 control cats; culture of flush samples
from CRS-affected cats yielded aerobic bacteria (9/10
cats), anaerobic bacteria (3/10), and Mycoplasma spp
(2/10). No fungal organisms were isolated from any cat.
Potential pathogens were isolated significantly more
often from CRS-affected cats than from control cats.
Bacterial culture of biopsy specimens yielded aerobic
bacteria (2/7 control cats and 4/10 CRS-affected cats)
and anaerobic bacteria (2/10 CRS-affected cats).
Although FHV-1 was not detected in nasal biopsy specimens
from control or CRS-affected cats, FHV-1 DNA
was detected via PCR assay in specimens from 4 of 7
control cats and 3 of 10 CRS-affected cats.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance–Compared with
findings in control cats, anaerobic bacteria, Mycoplasma
spp, and a variety of potentially pathogenic organisms
were detected more commonly in samples from cats
with CRS. In both groups, FHV-1 was detected via PCR
assay as a nonviable organism or in noncultivable
amounts. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:579–585)
Objective—To investigate the correlation of cumulative
rhinoscopic findings of hyperemia, mucus accumulation,
and turbinate destruction with the type and
severity of inflammatory infiltrates in nasal biopsy
specimens of cats with or without upper respiratory
Animals—Cats with (n = 11) and without (6) upper
respiratory tract disease and cats with unknown medical
Procedures—Lesions of hyperemia, mucus accumulation,
and turbinate destruction detected rhinoscopically
were each scored (scale, 0 [absent] to 3
[severe]), and a cumulative rhinoscopic score for each
nasal cavity was calculated. Fifty biopsy specimens
were examined histologically, and inflammatory infiltrates
(lymphoplasmacytic or neutrophilic) were graded
as absent, mild, moderate, or severe. Cumulative
rhinoscopic scores and inflammation grades were
compared for each specimen-cavity combination.
Results—In cats of known disease status, there was a
positive but weak correlation between cumulative
rhinoscopic scores and inflammation grades in biopsy
specimens. In cats of unknown disease status, there
was no similar correlation. Biopsy specimens with minimal
inflammation were commonly obtained from nasal
cavities with low rhinoscopic scores; specimens with
moderate or severe inflammatory changes were frequently
obtained from cavities that appeared normal
rhinoscopically. Type of inflammatory infiltrates was not
correlated with rhinoscopic signs of inflammation.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The correlation
of rhinoscopic findings with inflammation severity
in nasal biopsy specimens (determined histologically)
was weak or lacking in cats of known and
unknown disease status, respectively. Results indicated
that rhinoscopy with biopsy provides more
complete evaluation of nasal disease than rhinoscopy
alone in cats. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:
Objective—To assess the use of a caudal external
thoracic artery axial pattern flap to treat sternal cutaneous
wounds in birds.
Animals—16 adult Japanese quail.
Procedure—A cutaneous defect in the region of the
mid-sternum was surgically created in all quail. In 6
quail (group I), an axial pattern flap was created from
the skin of the lateral aspect of the thorax and
advanced over the sternal defect. In 8 quail (group II),
a flap was similarly created and advanced but the flap
vasculature was ligated. All quail were euthanatized at
14 days after surgery and had necropsies performed.
Sections of the flap and the surrounding tissue were
examined histologically to assess flap viability.
Results—All axial pattern flaps in group-I quail had
100% survival. In group II, mean percentage area of
flap survival was 62.5%; mean area of necrosis and
dermal fibrosis of flaps were significantly greater than
that detected in group I. In flaps of group-II quail, neovascularization
in the deep dermis and profound
necrosis of the vascular plexus in the superficial dermis
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated
that the caudal external thoracic artery axial pattern
flap could be used successfully in the treatment
of surgically created sternal cutaneous defects in
quail with no signs of tissue necrosis or adverse
effects overall. Use of this technique to treat selfmutilation
syndromes or application after surgical
debulking of tumors or other masses might be beneficial
in many avian species. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To determine clinical signs and rhinoscopic,
computed tomographic, and histologic abnormalities
in dogs with idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedure—Clinical information was obtained from
medical records. Nasal computed tomographic
images and histologic slides of biopsy specimens
Results—Dogs ranged from 1.5 to 14 years old
(mean, 8 years); most (28) were large-breed dogs.
Nasal discharge was unilateral in 11 of 26 (42%)
dogs and bilateral in 15 of 26 (58%) dogs. In dogs
with unilateral disease, duration of clinical signs
ranged from 1.5 to 36 months (mean, 8.25 months;
median, 2 months), and in dogs with bilateral disease,
duration of signs ranged from 1.25 to 30
months (mean, 6.5 months; median, 4 months).
Computed tomography (n = 33) most often revealed
fluid accumulation (27/33 [82%]), turbinate destruction
(23/33 [70%]), and frontal sinus opacification
(14/33 [42%]). Rhinoscopy (n = 37) commonly
demonstrated increased mucus and epithelial
inflammation; turbinate destruction was detected in
8 of 37 (22%) dogs. Bilateral biopsy specimens from
all 37 dogs were examined. Four dogs had only unilateral
inflammatory changes. The remaining 33 dogs
had bilateral lesions; in 20, lesions were more
severe on 1 side than the other.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings suggest
that idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis is a key
contributor to chronic nasal disease in dogs and may be
more common than previously believed. In addition, findings
suggest that idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis is
most often a bilateral disease, even among dogs with
unilateral nasal discharge. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;
Objective—To correlate gene transcription of
cytokines and chemokines with histologic inflammation
in nasal biopsy specimens of cats.
Animals—25 study cats and 4 specific pathogen–free
Procedure—One nasal biopsy specimen from each
cat was submitted for routine histologic evaluation; a
second was submitted for evaluation by use of a
quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction
analysis with a fluorogenic probe (ie, TaqMan) for
detection of cytokines and chemokines (interleukin
[IL]-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 p40, IL-16, IL-18, interferon
[IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, and the regulated
on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted
[RANTES] protein). Specimens were grouped histologically
by degree of inflammation (none, mild,
moderate, or severe). Linearized TaqMan signals for
each gene were compared among histologic groups.
Results—Nasal biopsy specimens from specific
pathogen–free cats were histologically normal, and
cytokine transcription was low in these samples. As
nasal inflammation in study cats worsened from
absent (n = 3) to mild (4) to moderate (8) or severe
(10), progressively and significantly increasing transcription
of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 p40, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and the
RANTES protein was detected. Transcription of IL-4, IL-
5, IL-16, and IL-18 did not correlate with worsened histologic
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Transcription
of specific cytokines and chemokines in nasal tissue
of cats progressively increased with severity of histologic
evidence of inflammation, and IL-6, IL-10, IL-12
p40, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and the RANTES protein were
markers of inflammation. Our data suggest that the
nasal cavity of cats is biased toward a Th1 cytokine
profile that is augmented by inflammation. (Am J Vet
Objective—To compare pathologic findings and
results of adrenalectomy for adrenal gland tumors in
dogs with and without vena caval tumor thrombi.
Animals—40 dogs with adrenal gland tumors.
Procedure—Medical records were examined. An
exact logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate
associations between tumor type or right-sided
versus left-sided tumor involvement and development
of caval tumor thrombi and associations between
tumor thrombi, tumor type, or right- versus left-sided
location and perioperative complications and mortality
rate. Survival was compared between dogs with
and without tumor thrombi.
Results—Caval thrombi were detected in 25% of
dogs, including 3 of 28 (11%) dogs with an adrenocortical
tumor and 6 of 11 dogs with a pheochromocytoma.
A caval tumor thrombus was detected in 6 of
17 right-sided and 4 of 20 left-sided tumors.
Sensitivity and specificity of abdominal ultrasonography
for detection of caval thrombi were 80 and 90%,
respectively. Intraoperative and postoperative complications
developed in 15 and 51% of dogs, respectively.
The mortality rate was 22%. There were no significant
differences in perioperative morbidity and
mortality rates between dogs with and without tumor
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Caval thrombi
associated with adrenal gland tumors are amenable
to adrenalectomy and thrombectomy without significantly
increased perioperative morbidity and mortality
rates, assuming the surgeon is experienced in appropriate
techniques. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223: