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  • Author or Editor: Hideo Akiyoshi x
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Abstract

Objective—To develop and evaluate a sandwich ELISA incorporating rabbit antiserum specific for canine surfactant protein A (SP-A) for use in measuring concentrations of SP-A in serum of dogs.

Sample—Serum samples obtained from 6 healthy dogs and 3 dogs with pulmonary disease.

Procedures—Rabbit antiserum was prepared against purified canine SP-A. The IgG fraction was isolated via protein G affinity chromatography and was then biotinylated. The sandwich ELISA was performed by use of anti-SP-A antibody (IgG) preabsorbed with sera from healthy dogs. Validity of the ELISA was confirmed by determination of the detection limit, precision, reproducibility, and accuracy. Serum SP-A concentrations were measured in 6 healthy dogs and 3 dogs with pulmonary disease.

Results—Detection limit of the ELISA was 2.0 ng/mL. Within- and between-assay coefficients of variation ranged from 3.8% to 14.1% and from 15.5% to 35.6%, respectively. The observed-to-expected recovery ratio ranged from 77.1% to 89.9%. Serum SP-A concentrations measured by use of the ELISA were ≤ 2.3 ng/mL in the 6 healthy dogs, 25.6 ng/mL in a dog with severe cardiac pulmonary edema, 8.3 ng/mL in a dog with pneumonia, and 10.1 ng/mL in a dog with lung lobe torsion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The sandwich ELISA was found to be useful for measuring purified canine SP-A concentrations and canine SP-A concentrations in serum samples. The ELISA was precise, reproducible, and accurate. The ELISA may be beneficial in assessing serum concentrations of canine SP-A as a potential biomarker of pulmonary diseases in dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare ultracentrifugation, precipitation, and membrane affinity chromatography methods for isolation of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from canine plasma samples and to identify suitable reference genes for incorporation into a quantitative reverse transcription PCR assay of microRNA expression in plasma EVs of healthy dogs.

ANIMALS

6 healthy Beagles.

PROCEDURES

Plasma samples were obtained from each dog, and EVs were isolated from 0.3 mL of these samples via ultracentrifugation, precipitation, and membrane-affinity chromatographic methods. Nanoparticle tracking analysis was performed to determine the concentration and size distribution of EVs isolated by the ultracentrifugation method. Expression levels (cycle threshold values) of 4 microRNAs (let-7a, miR-16, miR-26a, and miR-103) were then compared by means of quantitative reverse transcription PCR assay. Three statistical programs were used to identify the microRNAs most suitable for use as reference genes.

RESULTS

Results indicated that ultracentrifugation was the most stable of all 3 methods for isolating microRNAs from 0.3 mL of plasma. Nanoparticle tracking revealed that EV samples obtained by the ultracentrifugation method contained a mean ± SD of approximately 1.59 × 1010 vesicles/mL ± 4.2 × 108 vesicles/mL. Of the 4 microRNAs in plasma EVs isolated by ultracentrifugation, miR-103 was the most stable.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The ultracentrifugation method has potential as a stable method for isolating EVs from canine plasma samples with a high recovery rate, and miR-103 may provide the most stable reference gene for normalizing microRNA expression data pertaining to plasma EVs isolated by ultracentrifugation.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether cross-reactivity exists between canine chromogranin A (CgA) and anti-human CgA antibody and investigate the usefulness of plasma CgA concentration measurements as an index of acute stress responses in dogs.

Animals—12 healthy Beagles.

Procedure—Canine CgA was extracted and purified from canine adrenal glands of cadaver dogs for studying cross-reactivity with anti-human CgA antibody. Western blotting with anti-human CgA antibody was performed. Blood samples were collected from dogs at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 120, and 180 minutes after IV administration of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution or insulin. Canine plasma CgA concentrations were determined by use of a CgA ELISA kit with rabbit antiserum against the carboxy-terminal fragment of human CgA. Plasma cortisol and catecholamine (ie, norepinephrine and epinephrine) concentrations were measured by use of an ELISA and a high-performance liquid chromatography method, respectively.

Results—Purified canine CgA was specifically detected by use of western blot analysis and an ELISA with anti-human CgA antibody. An increase in plasma CgA concentrations was observed in insulin-induced hypoglycemic dogs. Changes in plasma CgA concentration were correlated with changes in plasma cortisol or catecholamine concentrations of hypoglycemic dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of the CgA ELISA kit for determination of human plasma CgA concentrations is applicable to the measurement of canine plasma CgA concentrations. Canine plasma CgA concentrations, along with measurements of plasma cortisol and catecholamine concentrations, correctly reflect insulin-induced hypoglycemic stressed conditions in dogs. Measurement of canine plasma CgA concentrations may provide a useful index for evaluation of an acute stress response. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1830–1835)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To measure expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plasma and in extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from plasma for dogs with glioma and dogs with other brain diseases.

SAMPLE

Plasma samples from 11 dogs with glioma and 19 control dogs with various other brain diseases.

PROCEDURES

EVs were isolated from plasma samples by means of ultracentrifugation. Expression of 4 candidate reference miRNAs (let-7a, miR-16, miR-26a, and miR-103) and 4 candidate target miRNAs (miR-15b, miR-21, miR-155, and miR-342-3p) was quantified with reverse transcription PCR assays. Three software programs were used to select the most suitable reference miRNAs from among the 4 candidate reference miRNAs. Expression of the 4 target miRNAs was then calculated relative to expression of the reference genes in plasma and EVs, and relative expression was compared between dogs with glioma and control dogs with other brain diseases.

RESULTS

The most suitable reference miRNAs were miR-16 for plasma and let-7a for EVs. Relative expression of miR-15b in plasma and in EVs was significantly higher in dogs with glioma than in control dogs. Relative expression of miR-342-3p in EVs was significantly higher in dogs with glioma than in control dogs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that miR-15b and miR-342-3p have potential as noninvasive biomarkers for differentiating glioma from other intracranial diseases in dogs. However, more extensive analysis of expression in specific glioma subtypes and grades, compared with expression in more defined control populations, will be necessary to assess their clinical relevance.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research