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  • Author or Editor: Hessel Franssen x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine the influence of age on results of quantitative analysis of electromyographic (EMG) needle examination in the subclavian, triceps, and lateral vastus muscles of Dutch Warmblood horses.

Animals—7 healthy young Dutch Warmblood horses (range, 13 to 18 months old), 7 healthy adult Dutch Warmblood horses (range, 4 to 10 years old), and 7 healthy elderly Dutch Warmblood horses (range, 18 to 21 years old).

Procedure—An EMG needle examination was performed to evaluate insertional activity, spontaneous activity, and motor unit action potential (MUAP) variables. Although all horses were conscious, young horses were sedated prior to examination.

Results—Mean insertional activity in young horses was significantly lower than in elderly horses. Pathologic spontaneous activity was rarely found in young and adult horses but was frequently evident in all muscles in all elderly horses. The MUAP duration and amplitude were significantly lower in all muscles of young horses, compared with values for adult and elderly horses. The MUAP duration and number of phases and turns were significantly lower in adult horses than in elderly horses. Group differences for percentages of polyphasic and complex MUAPs were also found. The 95% confidence intervals for MUAP duration, MUAP amplitude, and number of phases and turns for the subclavian, triceps, and lateral vastus muscles were significantly lower in young horses than in adult or elderly horses.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Age of the horse being examined should be considered when EMG examination is performed. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:70–75)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether electromyographic abnormalities are evident in skeletal muscles in horses with induced hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia.

Animals—7 healthy adult Dutch Warmblood horses.

Procedure—Electromyographic examination was performed in the lateral vastus, triceps, and subclavian muscles before and after IV infusion of EDTA. An initial dose (mean ± SD, 564 ± 48 ml) of a 10% solution of sodium EDTA was administered IV during a period of 21 ± 7.3 minutes to establish a blood concentration of ionized calcium of approximately 0.5 mMol/L. Average rate of EDTA infusion to maintain ionized calcium at this concentration was 6.6 ml/min.

Results—Mean blood concentrations of ionized calcium and magnesium were 1.39 ± 0.06 and 0.84 ± 0.09 mM, respectively before EDTA infusion; after EDTA infusion, concentrations were 0.48 ± 0.05 and 0.44 ± 0.20 mM, respectively. This state induced positive waves; fibrillation potentials; doublets, triplets, and multiplets; complex repetitive discharges; and neuromyotonia. Analysis of motor unit action potentials (MUAP) after EDTA infusion revealed an increase in prevalence of polyphasic and complex MUAP in all muscles.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—None of the horses had classical signs of hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia. In contrast, all horses had spontaneous activity in the measured muscles indicative of nerve hyperirritability. Calcium and magnesium deficits appear to have consequences, which may be subclinical, affecting functions of the neuromuscular system. This is of interest for equestrian sports in which hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia are expected, such as during endurance rides. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:849–856)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the application of analysis of motor unit action potentials (MUAP) in horses and to obtain values of MUAP for the subclavian muscle of horses.

Animals—10 healthy adult Dutch Warmblood horses.

Procedure—Electromyographic examination of the subclavian muscle in conscious nonsedated horses was performed to evaluate insertional activity, spontaneous activity, MUAP variables, and recruitment patterns. Muscle and body temperatures were measured at the beginning and end of the procedure. Amplitude, duration, number of phases, and number of changes in direction (ie, turns) for all representative MUAP were analyzed to determine values for this muscle in this group of horses.

Results—Mean ± SD duration of insertional activity was 471.7 ± 33.45 milliseconds. Mean MUAP amplitude in the examined horses was 379 µV (95% confidence interval [CI], 349 to 410 µV). Mean MUAP duration of the subclavian muscle was 7.27 milliseconds (95% CI, 6.84 to 7.71 milliseconds). Mean number of phases was 2.9, and mean number of turns was 3.0. Prevalence of polyphasic MUAP, defined as MUAP with > 4 phases, was 7.7%. Number of MUAP that had > 5 turns was 2.4%. Satellite potentials were found in 1.0% of the MUAP.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study revealed that electromyography including MUAP analysis can be performed in horses, and values for the subclavian muscle in healthy adult horses can be obtained. Analysis of MUAP could be a valuable diagnostic tool for use in discriminating between myogenic and neurogenic problems in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:198–203)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research