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  • Author or Editor: Hermann Hogg x
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Objective—To develop and validate a novel instrumented treadmill capable of determining vertical ground reaction forces of all 4 limbs simultaneously in horses.

Sample Population—Data obtained while a horse was walking and trotting on the treadmill.

Procedure—18 piezo-electric force transducers were mounted between the treadmill frame and supporting steel platform to measure the actual forces at the corresponding bearing points. Each of the 18 sensor forces is equal to the sum of the unknown hoof forces weighted with the transfer coefficients of the corresponding force application points. The 4 force traces were calculated, solving at each time point the resulting equation system, using the Gaussian least-squares method. System validation comprised the following tests: determination of the survey accuracy of the positioning system, determination of the natural frequencies of the system, linearity test of the force transfer to the individual sensors, determination of superimposed forces with the treadmill-integrated force measuring system (TiF) in a static configuration, and comparison of vertical ground reaction forces determined simultaneously by use of TiF and force shoes mounted on the forelimbs of a horse.

Results—Comparison between static test loads and TiF-calculated forces revealed deviations of < 1.4%. Force traces of TiF-calculated values and those recorded by use of the force shoes were highly correlated ( r ≥ 0.998).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This instrumented treadmill allows a reliable assessment of load distribution and interlimb coordination in a short period and, therefore, is suitable for use in experimental and clinical investigations. (Am J Vet Res 002;63:520–527).

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Urethral pressures profiles (upp) obtained by use of microtransducer catheters were determined in 8 anestrous sexually intact female Beagles during general anesthesia. A upp study consisted of 3 consecutive recordings, and 4 upp studies were repeated at an interval of 5 days in each dog. Maximal urethral pressure (cm of H2O), bladder pressure (cm of H2O), and anatomic urethral length (cm) were recorded. Maximal urethral closure pressure (cm of H2O) was calculated.

Mean ± sd (for all measurements) maximal urethral closure pressure was 12.8 ± 5.6 cm of H2O (range, 2.4 to 25.2 cm of H2O). Maximal urethral closure pressure was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased during the first recording period (11.4 ± 5.8 cm of H2O), compared with the second (13.0 ± 5.2 cm of H2O) or third (14.1 ± 5.7 cm of H2O) recording periods within a upp study (3 consecutive recordings). Mean maximal difference in urethral closure pressure during a single upp study was 4.8 ± 2.4 cm of H2O. Significant difference in maximal urethral closure pressure was not observed between studies.

Mean (for all measurements) anatomic urethral length was 6.2 ± 0.9 cm (4.1 to 7.8 cm). Anatomic urethral length was significantly (P < 0.05) less during the first recording period (6.1 ± 0.9 cm), compared with values for the second and third periods (6.3 ± 0.9cm, 6.4 ± 0.9 cm respectively). Anatomic urethral length for time 3 was significantly (P < 0.05) less than the value for time 1 (5.8 ± 0.7 cm vs 6.6 ± 0.8 cm).

We conclude that the microtransducer catheter technique for measurement of upp was reproducible during a single study and between successive studies.

This method is useful in documenting maximal urethral pressure, maximal urethral closure pressure, and anatomic urethral length in clinically normal sexually intact female dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research