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  • Author or Editor: Heriberto Rodriguez x
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Neutrophil migration through bovine teat tissues into the teat cistern, after endotoxin infusion into the teat cistern, was determined in vivo by 2 experimental procedures, indium-111 labeling of blood neutrophils, and obtaining multiple biopsy specimens from the teat cistern tissues. In both experiments, the number of leukocytes in the teat cistern flushing samples was continuously measured.

A lag phase of approximately 1 hour was required between endotoxin infusion into the teat cistern and the first observed neutrophil accumulation in the teat tissues. The rate of neutrophil accumulation in the teat tissues was highest between postinfusion (pi) hours 1 and 2, and the accumulation process ceased after pi hour 3. Neutrophils migrated toward the epithelium, and intraepithelial neutrophils were observed beginning approximately 2 hours after infusion, which coincided with the first influx of cells into the teat cistern. The cell influx into the teat cistern increased continuously up to pi hour 3, peaked between pi hours 3 and 5, and was close to preinfusion value at pi hour 22.

Use of indium-111-labeled neutrophils in the study of the inflammatory process provides a reliable noninvasive method to quantify cell migration in vivo. Use of biopsies allows quantification of the number of cells in different tissue areas, but has the disadvantage of being invasive. These 2 procedures complement each other, and could be of use in future studies of the local inflammatory process.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Explants from the matrix of the stratum medium of the wall of the equine and bovine hoof each were cultured on a microporous membrane, using a standard culture medium. After incubation at 37 C, the outgrowth was a mixture of keratinocytes and fibroblasts, with predominance of the latter. After incubation at 34 C, the keratinocytes dominated, covering the lateral surfaces of the explant as well as the basal surface. Lateral outgrowth of keratinocytes was observed at the borderline of the original epidermis and at the borderline of the explant’s contact with the membrane. Epithelial outgrowth from the former consisted of rounded aggregates protruding into the medium, whereas outgrowth from the latter formed a pluristratified carpet occupying a considerable part of the membrane. In the outer layers, keratinocytes covering the cut surfaces of the dermis of the explant had a differentiation pattern of the kind that characterizes the keratinocytes of the hoof; differentiation was not observed in the lateral outgrowth.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To develop and analytically validate a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the quantification of lactulose, rhamnose, xylose, 3-O-methylglucose, and sucrose in canine serum.

Sample Population—Pooled serum samples from 200 dogs.

Procedures—Serum samples spiked with various sugars were analyzed by use of GC-MS. The method was analytically validated by determination of dilutional parallelism, spiking recovery, intra-assay variability, and interassay variability.

Results—Standard curves ranging from 0.5 to 500 mg/L for each sugar revealed a mean r 2 of 0.997. The lower detection limit was 0.03 mg/L for lactulose, rhamnose, xylose, and methylglucose and 0.12 mg/L for sucrose. The observed-to-expected ratios for dilutional parallelism had a mean ± SD of 105.6 ± 25.4% at dilutions of 1:2, 1:4, and 1:8. Analytic recoveries for the GC-MS assays of sugars ranged from 92.1% to 124.7% (mean ± SD, 106.2 ± 13.0%). Intra-assay coefficients of variation ranged from 6.8% to 12.9% for lactulose, 7.1% to 12.8% for rhamnose, 7.2% to 11.2% for xylose, 8.9% to 11.5% for methylglucose, and 8.9% to 12.0% for sucrose. Interassay coefficients of variation ranged from 7.0% to 11.5% for lactulose, 6.4% to 9.4% for rhamnose, 6.8% to 13.2% for xylose, 7.0% to 15.9% for methylglucose, and 5.5% to 9.4% for sucrose.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The GC-MS method described here was accurate, precise, and reproducible for the simultaneous measurement of sugar probes in canine serum.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To evaluate effect of age and parity on distribution and number of cells expressing major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, CD4, or CD8 molecules in the endometrium of mares during estrus.


32 gynecologically healthy mares, categorized as young (3 to 8 years; n = 17) or old (9 to 16 years; 15) and nulliparous (n = 6), nulliparous embryo donors (16), or parous (10).


Endometrial specimens collected from the uterine body and horns during estrus were stained by use of the avidin-biotin-peroxidase method, using monoclonal antibodies against equine MHC class II, CD4, and CD8 molecules. Labeled cells in the stratum compactum within 5 randomly selected fields at 400× magnification (total area = 0.31 mm2) were counted, and numbers were compared among groups and between locations.


Age did not affect cell numbers within the 3 cell subsets examined. Numbers in each subset were higher in the uterine body than in the horns, although the difference was not significant for cells expressing MHC class II. Significantly more cells expressing MHC class II molecules were detected in the uterine body of nulliparous and parous mares than in embryo donors, whereas in the horns, these cells were significantly higher in number only in parous mares. Parity did not affect number of CD4+ or CD8+ cells.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

The increased likelihood for endometritis to develop in mares as they age cannot be explained by a decrease in number of cells expressing MHC class II, CD4, or CD8 molecules within the endometrium. However, greater number of cells within these 3 subsets detected in the uterine body, compared with the horns, during estrus suggests a local readiness to act against microorganisms or semen introduced during mating or insemination. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1531–1535)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research