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  • Author or Editor: Henrike A. Gregersen x
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Present an approach to the safe and efficient provision of anesthesia and birth control measures to a large group of primates.


98 hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) held in a German zoological institution.


A group of 12 veterinarians, 2 zookeepers, and 6 volunteers anesthetized all animals within 2 days. The baboons were orally premedicated with midazolam (0.1 to 0.5 mg/kg) and anesthetized with medetomidine (40 to 60 µg/kg, IM) and ketamine (2 to 4 mg/kg, IM); isoflurane at rates of 1.5% to 2% was used for maintaining anesthesia if necessary. All animals received a physical examination, prophylactic medication, and tuberculin testing. For population management, the animals received a contraceptive implant (adult females), orchiectomy (young males), or vasectomy (breeding males). Young males received intratesticular blocks with lidocaine. All animals received atipamezole (125 to 150 µg/kg) before recovery.


Premedication resulted in anxiolysis, which facilitated separating and darting. Median time from darting to access to the animal was 10 minutes. Mean anesthetic times were 25 minutes for females and 55 minutes for males. The depth of anesthesia was appropriate for the procedures. No fatalities were recorded. One animal was injured by other baboons but recovered after treatment.


Health management and birth control measures are necessary in baboon troops under human care. Anesthesia and/or contraception of individual animals often leads to intraspecific aggression. This case series describes how to provide anesthesia and contraception to an entire troop as an alternative approach that can be adopted to future similar interventions.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research