Objective—To develop a transcutaneous ultrasonography (TUS) method for measuring the location of the stomach during various levels of fluid distension and evaluate any correlation between gastric fluid distension and stomach position.
Animals—6 adult horses.
Procedures—Known volumes of water were administered in 2 trials. In trial 1, the stomach was evaluated prior to and after the administration of 2, 4, and 6 L of water. In trial 2, the stomach was evaluated after administration of 6, 8, 10, and 12 L of water. The TUS was performed at the 7th through 16th left intercostal spaces (ICSs). For each volume of water, an image was captured at the most dorsal point in each ICS where the dorsolateral aspect of the stomach wall was viewed. The distance between this point and a horizontal line drawn on the skin at the level of the elbow joint was measured. The measurements at all ICSs were used to estimate the gastric wall height at ICS 12, which was subsequently evaluated for statistical association with volume administered.
Results—Significant correlation between the estimated height of the stomach wall at ICS 12 and the volume of fluid administered was detected. A regression equation to estimate gastric fluid volume when initial values for gastric wall height (cm) at ICS 12 and fluid volume (L) are known was developed.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that use of TUS for gastric fluid volume estimation is a potentially useful technique.
To investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine (DXM) and its subsequent reversal with atipamezole (APM) on the echocardiogram and circulating concentrations of cardiac biomarkers in cats.
14 healthy cats.
Cats underwent echocardiography and measurements of circulating cTn-I and NT-proBNP concentrations before (PRE) and during (INTRA) DXM sedation (40 µg/kg IM) and 2 to 4 (2H POST) and 24 (24H POST) hours after reversal with APM.
Administering DXM significantly decreased heart rate, right ventricular and left ventricular (LV) outflow tract velocities, and M-mode–derived LV free-wall thickness; increased LV end systolic diameter and volume; and caused valvar regurgitation. While sedative effects resolved within 25 minutes of APM reversal, the evolution of echocardiographic changes was mixed: LV ejection fraction and mitral valvar regurgitation score were different at 2H POST than at both INTRA and PRE (partial return toward baseline), LV end-diastolic volume was different PRE to INTRA and INTRA to 2H POST but not different PRE to 2H POST (full return toward baseline), and M-mode–derived LV free-wall thickness was significantly different from PRE to INTRA and PRE to 2H POST (no return toward baseline). Serum cTn-I and plasma NT-proBNP concentrations increased significantly with DXM, which remained significant 2H POST.
Administration of DXM and APM reversal produced changes in echocardiographic results and in circulating cTn-I and NT-proBNP concentrations. Understanding these changes could help veterinarians differentiate drug effects from cardiac disease.
Objective—To develop a preliminary discriminative
questionnaire for assessment of nonphysical aspects of
the quality of life (QOL) of pet dogs and evaluate the
questionnaire's content validity, test-retest reliability,
and internal consistency.
Study Population—Owners of 120 dogs.
Procedure—Each QOL question had 4 response
options, representing descending levels of QOL that
were equally weighted. A maximum of 38 items contributed
to the QOL score. The questionnaire was
administered by telephone to owners of dogs with
appointments at a veterinary teaching hospital before
the appointment. After the appointment, each dog was
classified as sick or healthy by use of defined criteria;
owners of healthy dogs had a second interview 3 to 4
weeks later. Test-retest reliability (κ), internal consistency
(Cronbach α), and respondents' comprehension
were used as criteria for excluding an item.
Results—There were 77 sick and 43 healthy dogs.
Twenty-two QOL questions had significant κ values
(0.11 to 0.91). The Cronbach α values for 5 domains of
QOL ranged from 0.45 to 0.61, indicating that the
domains had moderate internal consistency (homogeneity).
The initial pool of 38 items was reduced to 27.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The questionnaire
was designed to complement veterinary
assessment of dogs' physical health. The questionnaire
may be a useful tool in making decisions regarding
dogs' QOL. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1453–1460)
Objective—To evaluate the ability of a questionnaire
regarding the nonphysical aspects of quality of life
(QOL) to differentiate sick and healthy dogs.
Procedure—The questionnaire was administered by
telephone to owners of 120 dogs with appointments
at a veterinary teaching hospital. A QOL score was
calculated for each dog on the basis of questions relevant
to the dog during the 7 days before the interview.
Scores were recorded as bar graphs, and linear
regression was used to examine the effect of health
status and other variables on QOL score. Certain
questions were eliminated post hoc, on the basis of
defined criteria, and the analyses were repeated.
Results—Scores were similar for sick (range, 67.0%
to 93.8%) and healthy (range, 68.0% to 89.8%) dogs.
Environment (suburban vs rural) and duration of ownership
were significant explanatory variables and
accounted for 10.5% of the variation in the QOL
score. Eleven questions were eliminated post hoc.
The scores derived from the 2 versions of the questionnaire
were highly correlated ( r= 0.92).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—There was no
evidence that the QOL questionnaire could differentiate
healthy dogs from sick dogs; environmental and
owner factors appeared to be more important. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1461–1467)
Objective—To characterize equine muscle tissue– and periosteal tissue–derived cells as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and assess their proliferation capacity and osteogenic potential in comparison with bone marrow– and adipose tissue–derived MSCs.
Sample—Tissues from 10 equine cadavers.
Procedures—Cells were isolated from left semitendinosus muscle tissue, periosteal tissue from the distomedial aspect of the right tibia, bone marrow aspirates from the fourth and fifth sternebrae, and adipose tissue from the left subcutaneous region. Mesenchymal stem cells were characterized on the basis of morphology, adherence to plastic, trilineage differentiation, and detection of stem cell surface markers via immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. Mesenchymal stem cells were tested for osteogenic potential with osteocalcin gene expression via real-time PCR assay. Mesenchymal stem cell cultures were counted at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours to determine tissue-specific MSC proliferative capacity.
Results—Equine muscle tissue– and periosteal tissue–derived cells were characterized as MSCs on the basis of spindle-shaped morphology, adherence to plastic, trilineage differentiation, presence of CD44 and CD90 cell surface markers, and nearly complete absence of CD45 and CD34 cell surface markers. Muscle tissue–, periosteal tissue–, and adipose tissue–derived MSCs proliferated significantly faster than did bone marrow–derived MSCs at 72 and 96 hours.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Equine muscle and periosteum are sources of MSCs. Equine muscle- and periosteal-derived MSCs have osteogenic potential comparable to that of equine adipose- and bone marrow–derived MSCs, which could make them useful for tissue engineering applications in equine medicine.
Objective—To describe outcomes for small-breed dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma.
Design—Multi-institutional retrospective case series.
Animals—51 small-breed dogs.
Procedures—Records from participating Veterinary Society of Surgical Oncology members were searched for dogs that weighed ≤ 15 kg (33 lb) with a histologic diagnosis of appendicular osteosarcoma. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine median survival times (MSTs), and Cox regression was performed to identify variables associated with survival time.
Results—Tumors were most commonly located on the humerus (n = 15) and femur (14). Of the 51 study dogs, 9 were treated nonsurgically, 16 underwent amputation of the affected limb only, and 26 underwent curative-intent treatment, with MSTs of 112, 257, and 415 days, respectively. The MST did not differ significantly between dogs in the amputation-only and curative-intent groups. For dogs in the nonsurgical group, MST decreased significantly as the tumor histologic score increased. For dogs in the amputation-only group, MST decreased as body weight increased.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—For the small-breed dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma of the present study, tumor histologic grade and mitotic index were subjectively lower and MST following amputation of the affected limb without adjuvant chemotherapy was longer, compared with those for similarly affected larger dogs. Results indicated no significant advantage in MST for dogs that underwent curative-intent treatment versus dogs that underwent amputation only, and further investigation of the importance of adjuvant chemotherapy is warranted.