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Objective—To determine time to first detection of Salmonella organisms in feces of animals after experimental infection PO and times to onset of diarrhea and pyrexia to evaluate a common method for identifying nosocomial infections on the basis of time of admission and onset of clinical signs (ie, the 3-day criterion).


Sample Population—Cattle, horses, goats, and sheep experimentally infected PO with Salmonella enterica subsp enterica.

Procedures—Online databases were searched for published reports describing results of experimental infection of cattle, horses, goats, and sheep PO with salmonellae. Time to detection of organisms in feces as well as to onset of diarrhea and pyrexia was noted. Analysis of covariance was used to examine relationships among these variables, host species and age, and Salmonella serovar and magnitude of infecting dose.

Results—Forty-three studies met the criteria for inclusion. Time to detection of salmonellae in feces ranged from 0.5 to 4 days. Times to onset of diarrhea and pyrexia ranged from 0.33 to 11 days and from 0.27 to 5 days, respectively. Time to onset of diarrhea was related to host age and Salmonella serovar. No other associations were identified.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Time to detection of salmonellae in feces is unreliable for identifying hospital-acquired infections; a 3-day criterion will misidentify hospital- versus community-acquired infections. Relying on clinical indices such as times to onset of diarrhea and pyrexia to trigger fecal sampling for detection of Salmonella infection will increase the risk of environmental contamination and nosocomial spread because animals may begin shedding organisms in feces several days prior.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the effect of colic surgery on return to function in Thoroughbred racehorses, identify clinical variables associated with successful return to racing, and compare racing performance between horses undergoing colic surgery and an untreated cohort.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—59 Thoroughbred racehorses 2 to 5 years of age that underwent colic surgery and survived to hospital discharge and 90 untreated Thoroughbred racehorses equivalent in class.

Procedures—Medical records of patients evaluated for colic between January 1996 and July 2009 were reviewed, and horses with a Jockey Club Information Systems record were included. Physical examination and laboratory findings on hospital admission, lesion location and type, duration of surgery, duration of hospitalization, and any postoperative complications were recorded. The untreated cohort comprised 2 untreated horses randomly selected from runners in each treated horse's last race immediately prior to the date of colic surgery. Records were obtained from the Jockey Club Information Systems in April 2011. Only horses that raced at least once before and after surgery were included in the performance analysis. Number of starts, earnings per start, and total earnings were determined from race records for all horses. Quarterly earnings and number of starts for 12 quarters following the date of surgery were compared between treated and untreated horses via a Wilcoxon rank sum test. Longevity of racing was assessed by means of survival analysis. Poisson regression was used to compare rates of return to racing and active quarters aggregated across the first 12 quarters after surgery and for the available follow-up period for treated and untreated horses.

Results—45 of 59 (76%) horses that raced prior to surgery returned to racing. Return to racing was significantly associated with admission heart rate and blood lactate concentration. From quarters 3 to 12, treated and untreated horses had slight differences in the number of starts but no difference in earnings per quarter. Treated and untreated horses had no difference in total number of quarters raced, number of starts, or earnings after surgery. Treated horses had higher earnings per start, compared with untreated horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In the present study, racing Thoroughbreds that underwent colic surgery and successfully returned to racing had no differences in performance variables, compared with their untreated cohorts.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To characterize antimicrobial prescribing patterns of clinicians and clinical services at a large animal veterinary teaching hospital and identify factors associated with antimicrobial prescribing.


All large animals (ie, equids, bovids, sheep, goats, camelids, swine, and cervids) evaluated at the New Bolton Center hospital at the University of Pennsylvania from 2013 through 2018.


In a cross-sectional study design, data on antimicrobial use by clinicians and clinical services were collected from administrative and billing records. Multivariable regression modeling was performed to identify factors associated with antimicrobial prescribing patterns.


Antimicrobials and critically important antimicrobials of the highest priority were dispensed in 42.1% (9,853/23,428) and 24.0% (2,360/9,853) of visits, respectively, and these proportions differed significantly among clinicians. Per visit, the median (interquartile [25th to 75th percentile] range) number of animal-defined daily doses dispensed was 3.6 (0.8 to 11.1) and the mean (SD) number of antimicrobial classes dispensed was 2.0 (1.3). Patient species, age, affected body system, and duration of hospitalization as well as submission of specimens for bacterial culture were significantly associated with prescribing patterns.


The frequency and quantity of antimicrobials prescribed differed significantly among clinicians within and across services, even for animals with clinical signs affecting the same body system. Patient- and visit-level factors explained some but not all of the heterogeneity in prescribing patterns, suggesting that other clinician-specific factors drove such practices. More research is needed to better understand antimicrobial prescribing patterns of clinicians, particularly in situations for which no antimicrobial use guidelines have been established.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of a commercially available multivalent killed virus vaccine on serum neutralizing (SN) and colostrum neutralizing (CN) antibodies against bovine herpesvirus (BHV) type 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2 in pregnant dairy cattle.

ANIMALS 49 Holstein dairy cattle.

PROCEDURES 25 cattle were vaccinated (IM injection) at least 60 days prior to calving (ie, at the end of the lactation period or according to the expected calving date for heifers) and again 5 weeks later. The remaining 24 cattle were not vaccinated (control group). Titers of SN antibodies were measured at the 5-week time point. Titers of SN and CN antibodies were measured at parturition.

RESULTS 5 weeks after initial vaccination, titers of SN antibodies against BHV-1 and BVDV types 1 and 2 were 1:512, 1:128, and 1:2,048, respectively, in vaccinates and 1:64, 1:128, and 1:64, respectively, in unvaccinated controls. Equivalent SN antibody titers at parturition were 1:256, 1:64, and 1:512, respectively, in vaccinates and 1:128, 1:128, and 1:64, respectively, in controls. Median titers of CN antibodies against BHV-1 and BVDV types 1 and 2 were 1:1,280, 1:10,240, and 1:20,480, respectively, in vaccinates and 1:80, 1:1,280, and 1:2,560, respectively, in controls.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Titers of antibodies against viral respiratory pathogens were significantly enhanced in both serum (BHV-1 and BVDV type 2) and colostrum (BHV-1 and BVDV types 1 and 2) in cattle receiving a killed virus vaccine (with no adverse reactions) before parturition. To maximize protection of bovine neonates, this method of vaccination should be considered.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research