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  • Author or Editor: Heidi Hautajärvi x
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OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of MK-467 and hyoscine butylbromide on detomidine hydrochloride–induced cardiorespiratory and gastrointestinal changes in horses.

ANIMALS 6 healthy adult horses.

PROCEDURES Horses received detomidine hydrochloride (20 μg/kg, IV), followed 10 minutes later by MK-467 hydrochloride (150 μg/kg; DET-MK), hyoscine butylbromide (0.2 mg/kg; DET-HYO), or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (DET-S), IV, in a Latin square design. Heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, arterial and venous blood pressures, and cardiac output were measured; blood gases and arterial plasma drug concentrations were analyzed; selected cardiopulmonary variables were calculated; and sedation and gastrointestinal borborygmi were scored at predetermined time points. Differences among treatments or within treatments over time were analyzed statistically.

RESULTS With DET-MK, detomidine-induced hypertension and bradycardia were reversed shortly after MK-467 injection. Marked tachycardia and hypertension were observed with DET-HYO. Mean heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure differed significantly among all treatments from 15 to 35 and 15 to 40 minutes after detomidine injection, respectively. Cardiac output was greater with DET-MK and DET-HYO than with DET-S 15 minutes after detomidine injection, but left ventricular workload was significantly higher with DET-HYO. Borborygmus score, reduced with all treatments, was most rapidly restored with DET-MK. Sedation scores and pharmacokinetic parameters of detomidine did not differ between DET-S and DET-MK.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE MK-467 reversed or attenuated cardiovascular and gastrointestinal effects of detomidine without notable adverse effects or alterations in detomidine-induced sedation in horses. Further research is needed to determine whether these advantages are found in clinical patients and to assess whether the drug influences analgesic effects of detomidine.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To investigate the cardiovascular and sedation reversal effects of IM administration of atipamezole (AA) in dogs treated with medetomidine hydrochloride (MED) or MED and vatinoxan (MK-467).


8 purpose-bred, 2-year-old Beagles.


A randomized, blinded, crossover study was performed in which each dog received 2 IM treatments at a ≥ 2-week interval as follows: injection of MED (20 μg/kg) or MED mixed with 400 μg of vatinoxan/kg (MEDVAT) 30 minutes before AA (100 μg/kg). Sedation score, heart rate, mean arterial and central venous blood pressures, and cardiac output were recorded before and at various time points (up to 90 minutes) after AA. Cardiac and systemic vascular resistance indices were calculated. Venous blood samples were collected at intervals until 210 minutes after AA for drug concentration analysis.


Heart rate following MED administration was lower, compared with findings after MEDVAT administration, prior to and at ≥ 10 minutes after AA. Mean arterial blood pressure was lower with MEDVAT than with MED at 5 minutes after AA, when its nadir was detected. Overall, cardiac index was higher and systemic vascular resistance index lower, indicating better cardiovascular function, in MEDVAT-atipamezole–treated dogs. Plasma dexmedetomidine concentrations were lower and recoveries from sedation were faster and more complete after MEDVAT treatment with AA than after MED treatment with AA.


Atipamezole failed to restore heart rate and cardiac index in medetomidine-sedated dogs, and relapses into sedation were observed. Coadministration of vatinoxan with MED helped to maintain hemodynamic function and hastened the recovery from sedation after AA in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research