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  • Author or Editor: Heidi E. Banse x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine serum antibody titers against canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus type II (CAV-2), and canine parvovirus (CPV) in trained sled dogs prior to and after completion of a long-distance race.

Design—Prospective cohort study.

Animals—195 Alaskan sled dogs (from 18 kennels) that participated in the 2006 Iditarod Trail Race.

Procedures—All 1,323 dogs participating in the race had been vaccinated against the 3 viruses at 19 to 286 days prior to initial blood sample collection (obtained within the month preceding the race). Within 12 hours of race completion, blood samples were collected from 195 dogs (convenience sample) and matched with each dog's prerace sample. Serum antibody titers (90% confidence intervals [CIs]) were determined via serum neutralization assays.

Results—After racing, geometric mean titers against CDV and CPV were significantly higher (2,495 [90% CI, 321 to 16,384] and 6,323 [90% CI, 512 to 32,768], respectively) than prerace values (82 [90% CI, 11 to 362] and 166 [90% CI, 32 to 1,024], respectively). Sixty-one of 194 (31.4%) dogs had t 4-fold increases in anti-CPV antibody titers after racing. Prerace serum antibody titers against CDV, CPV, and CAV-2 varied significantly by sled team but were not associated with time since vaccination.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Postrace increases in serum anti-CDV and anti-CPV antibody titer might reflect exposure of dogs to these agents immediately before or during racing. Dogs had no clinical signs of CDV-, CAV-2-, or CPV-associated disease; therefore, the clinical importance of these titer changes is uncertain.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare small intestinal inflammation with gastric inflammation in horses with and without equine gastric glandular disease (EGGD), we evaluated endoscopic, macroscopic, and microscopic findings of the glandular stomach and microscopic findings of the small intestine.

ANIMALS

36 horses.

METHODS

Horses underwent endoscopy and were scored for EGGD. After euthanasia, stomachs were collected and macroscopically evaluated. Normal pyloric mucosa, glandular lesions, and small intestinal (duodenum, mid-jejunum, and ileum) samples were collected and processed for microscopic examination. Cellular infiltrate was scored. Immunohistochemistry (CD3, CD20, and Iba-1) was performed on the ventral pylorus and small intestine of horses with mild to moderate lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. A Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the relationship of EGGD grade with gastric glandular inflammation, and the relationships of cellular infiltrate type and severity among glandular stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.

RESULTS

Gastrointestinal inflammation was common, with gastric inflammatory infiltrate identified in 92%, duodenal inflammatory infiltrate in 83%, jejunal inflammatory infiltrate in 92%, and ileal inflammatory infiltrate in 92% of horses. Endoscopic evidence of gastric disease (hyperemia or EGGD grade ≥ 2/4) was not associated with the presence or severity of duodenal, jejunal, or ileal inflammation. Gastric lymphoplasmacytic inflammation grade ≥ 2 was associated with duodenal lymphoplasmacytic inflammation grade ≥ 2. This was a convenience sample of horses presenting for euthanasia. Medical history (including deworming history) was unknown.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Gastric lymphoplasmacytic inflammation is associated with duodenal lymphoplasmacytic inflammation but not more distal small intestinal inflammation. Intestinal inflammation is not associated with endoscopic findings (hyperemia or EGGD grade ≥ 2/4).

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship of diet and management factors with the glandular gastric mucosal microbiome. We hypothesize that the gastric mucosal microbial community is influenced by diet and management factors. Our specific objective is to characterize the gastric mucosal microbiome in relation to these factors.

ANIMALS

57 client-owned horses in the southern Louisiana region with and without equine glandular gastric disease.

PROCEDURES

Diet and management data were collected via a questionnaire. Gastroscopy was used for evaluation of equine gastric ulcer syndrome and collection of glandular mucosal pinch biopsies. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was used for microbiome analysis. Similarity and diversity indices and sequence read counts of individual taxa were compared between diet and management factors.

RESULTS

Differences were detected in association with offering hay, type of hay, sweet feed, turnout, and stalling. Offering hay and stalling showed differences in similarity indices, whereas hay type, sweet feed, and turnout showed differences in similarity and diversity indices. Offering hay, hay type, and sweet feed were also associated with differences in individual sequence read counts.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study provides preliminary characterization of the complex relationship between the glandular gastric microbiome and diet/management factors. The ideal microbiome to promote a healthy glandular gastric environment remains unknown.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the role of equine herpesvirus-2 (EHV-2) and equine herpesvirus-5 (EHV-5) in equine glandular gastric disease (EGGD) by visualizing and quantifying these gamma herpesviruses in EGGD-affected and normal glandular gastric mucosa of horses. A secondary objective was to describe the histopathological abnormalities in the equine gastric glandular mucosa in horses with EGGD.

ANIMALS

29 horses (n = 21 postmortem and 8 gastroscopy) categorized as normal (11), EGGD (12), or both EGGD and equine squamous gastric disease (6).

METHODS

Glandular gastric mucosal samples were collected from horses by gastroscopy or postmortem. Histopathology and in situ hybridization targeting EHV-2 and EHV-5 were performed on grossly normal and abnormal glandular gastric mucosa. The number of in situ hybridization-positive cells per millimeter squared of tissue was calculated. Evaluators were blinded to groups.

RESULTS

Glandular gastric tissues from horses without EGGD had higher viral loads in the mucosa than normal or abnormal tissues from EGGD horses. There was no difference in viral loads for EHV-2 or EHV-5 between grossly or endoscopically normal to abnormal gastric tissues within horses with EGGD. Lymphocytic plasmacytic gastritis was the most common histopathological abnormality, with only 3 horses having mucosal disruption (glandular ulcer or erosion).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Equine gamma herpesviruses are unlikely to play a role in the pathophysiology of EGGD. EGGD is frequently inflammatory with occasional mucosal disruption (ulcer or erosion).

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Case Description—13 equids (10 horses, 2 donkeys, and 1 pony) were examined for signs of colic (n = 7), weight loss (6), anorexia (3), and diarrhea (2). Ten equids were evaluated in the fall (September to November). Seven equids had a history of persimmon ingestion.

Clinical Findings—A diagnosis of phytobezoar caused by persimmon ingestion was made for all equids. Eight equids had gastric persimmon phytobezoars; 5 had enteric persimmon phytobezoars. Gastroscopy or gastroduodenoscopy revealed evidence of persimmon ingestion in 8 of 10 equids in which these procedures were performed.

Treatment and Outcome—2 of 13 equids were euthanatized prior to treatment. Supportive care was instituted in 11 of 13 equids, including IV administration of fluids (n = 8) and treatment with antimicrobials (5), NSAIDs (5), and gastric acid suppressants (4). Persimmon phytobezoar–specific treatments included dietary modification to a pelleted feed (n = 8); oral or nasogastric administration of cola or diet cola (4), cellulase (2), or mineral oil (2); surgery (4); and intrapersimmon phytobezoar injections with acetylcysteine (1). Medical treatment in 5 of 7 equids resulted in resolution of gastric persimmon phytobezoars. Seven of 8 equids with gastric persimmon phytobezoars and 1 of 5 equids with enteric persimmon phytobezoars survived > 1 year after hospital discharge.

Clinical Relevance—Historical knowledge of persimmon ingestion in equids with gastrointestinal disease warrants gastroduodenoscopy for evaluation of the presence of persimmon phytobezoars. In equids with gastric persimmon phytobezoars, medical management (including administration of cola or diet cola and dietary modification to a pelleted feed) may allow for persimmon phytobezoar dissolution.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association