OBJECTIVE To measure serum homocysteine concentrations in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and identify any association between this variable and stage of MMVD.
ANIMALS 53 client-owned dogs with MMVD and 10 healthy control Beagles.
PROCEDURES Dogs with MMVD were allocated to 3 groups in accordance with the staging system for chronic valvular heart disease in dogs and cats of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine. Blood samples were collected from all dogs, and serum homocysteine and cardiac troponin 1 concentrations were measured by enzyme immunoassay and chemiluminescence immunoassay, respectively. Analyte values were tested for associations with each other and with stage of MMVD.
RESULTS A significant correlation was identified between serum homocysteine concentration and stage of MMVD. Mean ± SD concentrations were 6.72 ± 1.65 μmol/L for control dogs, 13.37 ± 4.16 μmol/L for dogs with stage B MMVD, 18.86 ± 6.73 μmol/L for dogs with stage C disease, and 28.26 ± 4.48 μmol/L for dogs with stage D disease. In addition, serum homocysteine concentration was correlated with serum cardiac troponin 1 (r = 0.34) and creatinine (r = 0.46) concentrations, systolic blood pressure (r = 0.57), and left atrium-to-aortic root ratio (r = 0.28), all of which were positively correlated with stage of MMVD.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Serum homocysteine concentrations of dogs with MMVD were significantly higher than those of control dogs, and significant correlations were identified between these values and several risk factors for heart failure. Measurement of serum homocysteine concentration may be useful in the prediction of severity of disease in dogs with MMVD.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of granulocyte colony–stimulating factor (GCSF) administration in dogs with experimentally induced acute kidney injury.
ANIMALS 6 healthy dogs.
PROCEDURES After induction of kidney injury (day 0) with cisplatin (5 mg/kg, IV), the dogs were randomly assigned into 2 groups (n = 3 dogs/group). Then dogs immediately received GCSF (10 μg/kg) or 1 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control group) SC; this treatment was repeated once daily for 4 additional days (days 1 through 4). A once-daily CBC (day 0 to 4), serum biochemical analysis (day 0 to 3), and urinalysis (day 0 to 3) were performed for each dog; samples were collected before administration of cisplatin (day 0) and before treatment with GCSF or saline solution (days 1 through 4). After sample collection and treatment on day 4, all dogs were euthanized; kidney tissue samples underwent histologic evaluation, immunohistochemical analyses, and cytokine profiling via reverse transcriptase PCR assay.
RESULTS In the GCSF-treated group, the histologic evaluation and immunohistochemical analyses of kidney tissue revealed less fibrotic change and greater proliferation of renal tubular epithelial cells, compared with findings in the control group. The mRNA profiles of kidney tissue from the GCSF-treated group indicated lower expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and tumor growth factor-β, compared with findings in the control group; however, concentrations of factors related to renal regeneration were not greater in the GCSF-treated group.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that GCSF treatment can impede renal fibrosis and increase proliferation of renal tubules after experimentally induced acute kidney injury in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2016;77:199–207)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the usefulness of autologous bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) therapy for the treatment of dogs with experimentally induced acute kidney injury.
ANIMALS 6 healthy dogs.
PROCEDURES After induction of kidney injury (day 0) with cisplatin (5 mg/kg, IV), dogs immediately received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (10 mL; n = 3) or BM-MSCs (1 × 106 cells/kg in 10 mL of saline solution; 3) IV. A CBC, serum biochemical analysis, and urinalysis were performed for each dog before administration of cisplatin and on days 1 through 4. Glomerular filtration rate was determined for all dogs on days −7 and 2; BM-MSC tracking by MRI was performed on BM-MSC–treated dogs on days −14 and 4. After sample collection and BM-MSC tracking on day 4, all dogs were euthanized; kidney tissue samples underwent histologic evaluation, immunohistochemical analysis, and cytokine profiling via reverse transcriptase PCR assays.
RESULTS Kidney tissue from both groups had mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration, tubular necrosis, dilated tubules, and glomerular damage. However, there was less fibrotic change and increased proliferation of renal tubular epithelial cells in the BM-MSC-treated dogs, compared with findings for the control dogs. Expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α and transforming growth factor-β were lower in the BM-MSC-treated group, compared with findings for the control group. Laboratory data revealed no improvement in the renal function in BM-MSC-treated dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this study suggested that autologous BM-MSCs may accelerate renal regeneration after experimentally induced acute kidney injury in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2016;77:208–217)