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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate cyclooxygenase (COX) selectivity of several nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) in canine blood in vitro.

Animals—11 healthy adult male hound crosses.

Procedure—9 NSAID were studied at 5 concentrations. Thromboxane B2 (TxB2) was assayed as a measure of COX-1 activity in clotted blood. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was assayed as a measure of COX-2 activity in heparinized, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated blood. All assays were competitive ELISA tests. Cyclooxygenase selectivity was expressed as a ratio of the concentration of an NSAID that inhibited 50% of the activity (IC50) of COX-1 to the IC50 of COX-2. A separate ratio of the concentration that inhibited 80% of COX activity (IC80) was also determined. A ratio of < 1.0 indicated selectivity for COX-1, whereas a ratio of > 1.0 indicated COX-2 selectivity.

Results—Ketoprofen, aspirin, and etodolac were COX-1 selective. Piroxicam, meloxicam, and carprofen had COX-2 selectivity. The IC50 and IC80 values were similar for most NSAID.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—This methodology provides repeatable data from individual dogs and is comparable to results of previous in vitro and ex vivo models. Findings are also consistent with those of canine studies performed in vivo, suggesting that this is a viable in vitro assessment of the COX selectivity of NSAID in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:91–94)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate in vivo activityin dogs of meloxicam or aspirin, previously shown in vitro to be a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor (COX-1 sparing drug), or a nonselective COX inhibitor, respectively.

Animals—12 male dogs with unilateral osteoarthritis of the stifle joint.

Procedure—Each dog was treated in a crossover design with aspirin or meloxicam for 21 days. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations were measured at days 0 (baseline), 7, and 21 of each treatment period in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated blood, synovial fluid collected by arthrocentesis, and endoscopic gastric mucosal biopsy specimens. Thromboxane B2 (TXB2) was evaluated in blood on days 0, 7, and 21 of each treatment period.

Results—Aspirin administration significantly suppressed PGE2 concentrations in blood, gastric mucosa, synovial fluid, and suppressed TXB2 concentration in blood at days 7 and 21. Meloxicam administration significantly suppressed PGE2 concentrations in blood and synovial fluid at days 7 and 21, but had no effect on concentrations of TXB2 in blood or PGE2 in gastric mucosa. Suppression of LPS-stimulated PGE2 concentrations in blood and synovial fluid by aspirin and meloxicam administration is consistent with activity against the COX-2 isoenzyme. Suppression of concentrations of PGE2 in the gastric mucosa and TXB2 in blood by aspirin administration is consistent with activity against COX-1. Meloxicam, in contrast, had a minimal effect on functions mediated by COX-1.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Meloxicam acts in vivo in dogs as a COX-1 sparing drug on target tissues by sparing gastric PGE2 synthesis while retaining antiprostaglandin effects within inflamed joints. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1527–1531)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research