OBJECTIVE To describe the ultrasonographic changes in the cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (CAD) and cricoarytenoideus lateralis (CAL) muscles of horses before and at various times during the 32 weeks after unilateral neurectomy of the right recurrent laryngeal nerve.
ANIMALS 28 healthy Standardbreds.
PROCEDURES For each horse, the appearance of the CAD and CAL muscles on the right (neurectomized) and left (control) sides was serially monitored ultrasonographically by percutaneous (CAD and CAL) and transesophageal (CAD) approaches. The ultrasonographic images were assessed to determine the mean pixel intensity, muscle thickness, and appearance grade, and comparisons were made between the muscles of the neurectomized and control sides.
RESULTS The muscle appearance grade and mean pixel intensity for the CAL and CAD muscles on the neurectomized side were significantly increased by 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, after the neurectomy. The transesophageal approach enhanced the ultrasonographic visibility of the CAD muscle and allowed us to detect a significant decrease in the thickness of the CAD muscle on the neurectomized side over time, compared with thickness of the CAD muscle on the control side.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested ultrasonography can be used to successfully assess the CAL and CAD muscles of horses. A qualitative grading scheme was sufficient for successful detection and monitoring of muscle atrophy and reduced the need for image standardization. The transesophageal approach described for assessment of the CAD muscle warrants further investigation.
Procedure—Computed tomography (CT) of the pelvis, including a bone-density phantom, was performed for each dog. Centrally located transverse CT slices and a computer workstation were used to identify 16 regions of interest (ROIs) in the proximal portion of the femur. For each ROI, the mean Hounsfield unit value was recorded; by use of the bone-density phantom and linear regression analysis, those values were converted to equivalent BMD (eBMD). Mean eBMD values for the subchondral and nonsubchondral ROIs in dogs with and without osteoarthritis (determined at necropsy) were compared. A mixed-model ANOVA and post hoc linear contrasts were used to evaluate the effects of osteoarthritis, breed, and sex on the BMD value.
Results—At necropsy, osteoarthritis was detected in 14 hip joints in 9 dogs; all lesions included early cartilage fibrillation. After adjusting for breed and sex, eBMD in subchondral ROIs 8 and 12 (adjacent to the fovea) were 8% and 6% higher, respectively, in osteoarthritis-affected dogs, compared with unaffected dogs; in the nonsubchondral ROIs, eBMD was 10% higher in osteoarthritis-affected dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Compared with findings in unaffected dogs, increased eBMD in hip joints of dogs with early osteoarthritis supports a strong relationship between the subchondral and epiphyseal regions and articular cartilage in the pathogenesis and progression of osteoarthritis.
Objective—To assess agreement between a commercially available Geiger-Meuller (GM) survey meter and millirem tissue-equivalent (TE) meter for measuring radioactivity in cats treated with sodium iodine I 131 (131I).
Animals—15 cats with hyperthyroidism and undergoing 131I treatment.
Procedures—Duplicate measurements were obtained at a distance of 30 cm from the thyroid region of each cat's neck by 2 observers who used both meters on day 3 or 5 after131I administration. Comparisons of measurements between meters and observers were made, with limits of agreement defined as the mean difference ± 2 SDs of the differences.
Results—For observer 1, the mean of the differences in the 2 meters' measurements in all cats was 0.012 mSv/h (SD, 0.011 mSv/h). For observer 2, the mean of the differences in measurements was 0.012 mSv/h (SD, 0.010 mSv/h). For the GM meter, the mean of the differences of the 2 observers for all cats was 0.003 mSv/h (SD, 0.011 mSv/h). For the TE meter, the mean of the differences of the 2 observers for all cats was 0.003 mSv/h (SD, 0.007 mSv/h).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that there was considerable agreement between meters and observers in measurements of radioactivity in cats treated with 131I. Measurements obtained by use of the GM meter may be approximately 0.01 mSv/h less than or 0.03 mSv/h higher than those obtained with the TE meter. If this range is acceptable for an institution's release criteria, the 2 meters should be considered interchangeable and acceptable for clinical use.
Objective—To evaluate the effects of various combinations of Paco2 and Pao2 values on brain morphometrics.
Animals—6 healthy adult dogs.
Procedures—A modified Latin square design for randomization was used. Dogs were anesthetized with propofol (6 to 8 mg/kg, IV), and anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane (1.7%) and atracurium (0.2 mg/kg, IV, q 30 min). Three targeted values of Paco2 (20, 40, and 80 mm Hg) and 2 values of Pao2 (100 and 500 mm Hg) were achieved in each dog, yielding 6 combinations during a single magnetic resonance (MR) imaging session. When the endpoints were reached, dogs were given at least 5 minutes for physiologic variables to stabilize before T1-weighted MR images were obtained. Total brain volume (TBV) and lateral ventricular volume (LVV) were calculated from manually drawn contours of areas of interest by use of a software program, with each dog serving as its own control animal. Three blinded investigators subjectively evaluated the lateral ventricular size (LVS) and the cerebral sulci width (CSW). Brain morphometric values were compared among the target blood gas states.
Results—No significant differences in TBV were found among target states. The LVV was significantly greater during hypocapnia, compared with hypercapnia at the same Pao2 value. With regard to the subjective evaluations, there were no significant differences among evaluators or among combinations of Pao2 and Paco2 values.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The changes observed in LVV during hypocapnia and hypercapnia may serve as a potential confounding factor when neuromorphometric evaluations are performed in anesthetized dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1011–1018)