OBJECTIVE To determine whether gender or interest in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine or surgery was associated with video-gaming, 3-D spatial analysis, or entry-level laparoscopic skills in third-year veterinary students.
DESIGN Cross-sectional study.
SAMPLE A convenience sample of 68 (42 female and 26 male) third-year veterinary students.
PROCEDURES Participants completed a survey asking about their interest in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine or surgery. Subsequently, participants’ entry-level laparoscopic skills were assessed with 3 procedures performed in box trainers, their video-gaming skills were tested with 3 video games, and their 3-D spatial analysis skills were evaluated with the Purdue University Visualization of Rotations Spatial Test. Scores were assigned for laparoscopic, video-gaming, and 3-D spatial analysis skills.
RESULTS Significantly more female than male students were interested in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine (23/42 vs 7/26), and significantly more male than female students were interested in pursuing specialty certification in surgery (19/26 vs 19/42). Males had significantly higher video-gaming skills scores than did females, but spatial analysis and laparoscopic skills scores did not differ between males and females. Students interested in pursuing specialty certification in surgery had higher video-gaming and spatial analysis skills scores than did students interested in pursuing specialty certification in internal medicine, but laparoscopic skills scores did not differ between these 2 groups.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For this group of students, neither gender nor interest in specialty certification in internal medicine versus surgery was associated with entry-level laparoscopy skills.
Objective—To evaluate the effect of multiple hydrogen peroxide gas plasma (HPGP) sterilizations on the rate of closure of ameroid constrictors.
Sample—Thirty-six 5.0-mm ameroid constrictors.
Procedures—Ameroid constrictors were randomly allocated to 6 groups. Each group underwent 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 HPGP sterilizations. Ameroid constrictors were then incubated for 35 days in canine plasma and digitally imaged at predetermined times during incubation. One individual, who was unaware of the group to which each ameroid constrictor was assigned, measured the lumen area of the constrictor on each digital image. Mean lumen area was compared among groups.
Results—No ameroid constrictors were completely closed after 35 days of incubation in canine plasma. Mean lumen area after incubation did not differ among constrictors that underwent 1, 2, and 3 sterilizations. Constrictors that underwent 4 sterilizations were closed significantly more than were those that underwent 1, 2, or 3 sterilizations. Mean lumen area after incubation did not differ significantly between constrictors that underwent 5 and 6 sterilizations, although the final lumen areas for those constrictors were significantly smaller than those for constrictors that underwent 1, 2, 3, and 4 sterilizations.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ameroid constrictors that underwent 5 and 6 HPGP sterilizations had a 9% to 12% decrease in lumen area, compared with that of constrictors that underwent ≤ 4 plasma sterilizations, and the use of such constrictors could increase the risk of portal hypertension and secondary acquired shunting or decrease the risk of persistent shunting.
Objective—To measure the effect of cold compress application on tissue temperature in healthy dogs.
Animals—10 healthy mixed-breed dogs.
Procedures—Dogs were sedated with hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg, IV) and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg, IV). Three 24-gauge thermocouple needles were inserted to a depth of 0.5 (superficial), 1.0 (middle), and 1.5 (deep) cm into a shaved, lumbar, epaxial region to measure tissue temperature. Cold (–16.8°C) compresses were applied with gravity dependence for periods of 5, 10, and 20 minutes. Tissue temperature was recorded before compress application and at intervals for up to 80 minutes after application. Control data were collected while dogs received identical sedation but with no cold compress.
Results—Mean temperature associated with 5 minutes of application at the superficial depth was significantly decreased, compared with control temperatures. Application for 10 and 20 minutes significantly reduced the temperature at all depths, compared with controls and 5 minutes of application. Twenty minutes of application significantly decreased temperature at only the middle depth, compared with 10 minutes of application.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—With this method of cold treatment, increasing application time from 10 to 20 minutes caused a further significant temperature change at only the middle tissue depth; however, for maximal cooling, the minimum time of application should be 20 minutes. Possible changes in tissue temperature and adverse effects of application > 20 minutes require further evaluation.
Objective—To measure the effect of warm compress application on tissue temperature in healthy dogs.
Animals—10 healthy mixed-breed dogs.
Procedures—Dogs were sedated with hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg, IV) and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg, IV). Three 24-gauge thermocouple needles were inserted to a depth of 0.5 cm (superficial), 1.0 cm (middle), and 1.5 cm (deep) into a shaved, lumbar, epaxial region to measure tissue temperature. Warm (47°C) compresses were applied with gravity dependence for periods of 5, 10, and 20 minutes. Tissue temperature was recorded before compress application and at intervals for up to 80 minutes after application. Control data were collected while dogs received identical sedation but with no warm compress.
Results—Mean temperature associated with 5 minutes of heat application at the superficial, middle, and deep depths was significantly increased, compared with the control temperature. Application for 10 minutes significantly increased the temperature at all depths, compared with 5 minutes of application. Mean temperature associated with 20 minutes of application was not different at the superficial or middle depths, compared with 10 minutes of application. Temperature at the deep depth associated with 10 minutes of application was significantly higher, compared with 20 minutes of application, but all temperature increases at this depth were minimal.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that application of a warm compress should be performed for 10 minutes. Changes in temperature at a tissue depth of 1.5 cm were minimal or not detected. The optimal compress temperature to achieve therapeutic benefits was not determined.
Objective—To determine the relationships among traditional and laparoscopic surgical skills, spatial analysis skills, and video gaming proficiency of third-year veterinary students.
Design—Prospective, randomized, controlled study.
Sample—A convenience sample of 29 third-year veterinary students.
Procedures—The students had completed basic surgical skills training with inanimate objects but had no experience with soft tissue, orthopedic, or laparoscopic surgery; the spatial analysis test; or the video games that were used in the study. Scores for traditional surgical, laparoscopic, spatial analysis, and video gaming skills were determined, and associations among these were analyzed by means of Spearman's rank order correlation coefficient (rs).
Results—A significant positive association (rs = 0.40) was detected between summary scores for video game performance and laparoscopic skills, but not between video game performance and traditional surgical skills scores. Spatial analysis scores were positively (rs = 0.30) associated with video game performance scores; however, that result was not significant. Spatial analysis scores were not significantly associated with laparoscopic surgical skills scores. Traditional surgical skills scores were not significantly associated with laparoscopic skills or spatial analysis scores.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study indicated video game performance of third-year veterinary students was predictive of laparoscopic but not traditional surgical skills, suggesting that laparoscopic performance may be improved with video gaming experience. Additional studies would be required to identify methods for improvement of traditional surgical skills.
Objective—To determine in vitro output temperature differences of 3 IV fluid warmers.
Design—Prospective, randomized study.
Sample—3 IV fluid warmers.
Procedures—Warming capabilities of a distance-dependent blood and fluid warmer marketed for human and veterinary use (product A) and a veterinary-specific distance-dependent fluid warmer (product B) were compared at 0, 4, 8, and 12 cm from the device to the test vein and at flow rates of 20, 60, 100, 140, 180, 220, 260, and 300 mL/h with room temperature (approx 22°C) fluids (phase 1). The superior warming device was compared against a distance-independent IV fluid warmer (product C) with room temperature fluids at the same flow rates (phase 2). The effect of prewarmed fluids (38°C) versus room temperature fluids was evaluated with the superior warming device from phase 2 (phase 3).
Results—In phase 1, product B produced significantly warmer fluids than product A for all flow rates and distances. Both distance-dependent devices produced warmer fluid at 0 cm, compared with 4, 8, and 12 cm. In phase 2, product B produced warmer fluid than product C at 60, 100, 140, and 180 mL/h. In phase 3, there was no significant benefit to use of prewarmed fluids versus room temperature fluids. Output temperatures ≥ 36.4°C were achieved for all rates ≥ 60 mL/h.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Product B had superior warming capabilities. Placing the fluid warmer close to the patient is recommended. Use of prewarmed fluids had no benefit. Lower IV fluid flow rates resulted in lower output fluid temperatures.