You are looking at 1 - 2 of 2 items for
- Author or Editor: Heather A. Tiley x
- Refine by Access: All Content x
Objective—To determine effects of dexamethasone on glucose dynamics and insulin sensitivity in healthy horses.
Animals—6 adult Standardbreds.
Procedures—In a balanced crossover study, horses received dexamethasone (0.08 mg/ kg, IV, q 48 h) or an equivalent volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment) during a 21-day period. Horses underwent a 3-hour frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test (FSIGT) 2 days after treatment. Minimal model analysis of glucose and insulin data from FSIGTs were used to estimate insulin sensitivity (Si), glucose effectiveness (Sg), acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg), and disposition index. Proxies for Si (reciprocal of the inverse square of basal insulin concentration [RISQI]) and beta-cell responsiveness (modified insulin-to-glucose ratio [MIRG]) were calculated from basal plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations.
Results—Mean serum insulin concentration was significantly higher in dexamethasone-treated horses than control horses on days 7, 14, and 21. Similarly, mean plasma glucose concentration was higher in dexamethasone-treated horses on days 7, 14, and 21; this value differed significantly on day 14 but not on days 7 or 21. Minimal model analysis of FSIGT data revealed a significant decrease in Si and a significant increase in AIRg after dexamethasone treatment, with no change in Sg or disposition index. Mean RISQI was significantly lower, whereas MIRG was higher, in dexamethasone-treated horses than control horses on days 7, 14, and 21.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The study revealed marked insulin resistance in healthy horses after 21 days of dexamethasone administration. Because insulin resistance has been associated with a predisposition to laminitis, a glucocorticoid-induced decrease in insulin sensitivity may increase risk for development of laminitis in some horses and ponies.
Objective—To determine the effects of dexamethasone treatment on selected components of insulin signaling and glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle obtained from horses before and after administration of a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC).
Animals—6 adult Standardbreds.
Procedures—In a balanced crossover study, horses received either dexamethasone (0.08 mg/kg, IV, q 48 h) or an equivalent volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, IV, for 21 days. A 2-hour EHC was administered for measurement of insulin sensitivity 1 day after treatment. Muscle biopsy specimens obtained before and after the EHC were analyzed for glucose transporter 4, protein kinase B (PKB), glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3α/β protein abundance and phosphorylation state (PKB Ser473 and GSK-3α/β Ser21/9), glycogen synthase and hexokinase enzyme activities, and muscle glycogen concentration.
Results—Dexamethasone treatment resulted in resting hyperinsulinemia and a significant decrease (70%) in glucose infusion rate during the EHC. In the dexamethasone group, increased hexokinase activity, abrogation of the insulin-stimulated increase in glycogen synthase fractional velocity, and decreased phosphorylation of GSK-3α Ser21 and GSK-3B Ser9 were detected, but there was no effect of dexamethasone treatment on glucose transporter 4 content and glycogen concentration or on PKB abundance and phosphorylation state.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses, 21 days of dexamethasone treatment resulted in substantial insulin resistance and impaired GSK-3 phosphorylation in skeletal muscle, which may have contributed to the decreased glycogen synthase activity seen after insulin stimulation.