OBJECTIVE To determine whether target values for pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) indices against selected canine pathogens were achievable for pradofloxacin in various canine fluids and leukocytes.
ANIMALS 8 healthy adult hounds (experiments 1 and 2) and 6 healthy adult dogs (experiment 3).
PROCEDURES In 3 experiments, pradofloxacin (3, 6, or 12 mg/kg) and enrofloxacin (5 or 10 mg/kg) were orally administered once a day for 5 days, and blood, interstitial fluid (ISF), and other fluid samples were collected at various points. Sample drug concentrations were measured, and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed; then, PK-PD indices (ratios between maximum observed concentration [Cmax] and minimum inhibitory or mutant prevention concentrations) were determined for 7 bacterial species.
RESULTS PK-PD values for pradofloxacin at 3 mg/kg were approximately 5 times as high in leukocyte versus plasma and were lowest in CSF, synovial fluid, and aqueous humor. No significant differences were noted between serum and ISF. Value ratios for serum versus other body fluids were numerically higher for pradofloxacin (vs enrofloxacin) for all fluid types except CSF and aqueous humor. Target PK-PD values were exceeded for pradofloxacin against all 7 bacterial species in leukocytes and against all species except Bacteroides spp in serum and ISF. Enrofloxacin achieved the target Cmax-to-minimum inhibitory concentration ratio against Pasteurella multocida in serum, ISF, and leukocytes and for Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in serum and leukocytes. A Cmax-to-mutant prevention concentration ratio ≥ 1 against Eschericha coli was achieved for pradofloxacin at 6 mg/kg.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE These findings supported once-daily oral administration of pradofloxacin to dogs at the currently recommended dose (7.5 mg/kg).
Objective—To describe bacteria isolated from reproductive tracts of mares and to examine the extent and patterns of resistance to antimicrobials commonly used for treatment of endometritis.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Sample—8,296 uterine swab, lavage, or biopsy samples obtained between January 2003 and December 2008 from 7,665 horses in central Florida.
Procedures—Results of bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were obtained for uterine swab, lavage, and biopsy samples collected from mares undergoing a routine breeding examination or examined because of a reproductive disorder. Bacterial organisms were identified by means of standard techniques, and proportions of samples resistant to various antimicrobials were determined.
Results—At least 95% of samples (n = 1,451) were collected with uterine swabs. Potentially pathogenic organisms were cultured from 2,576 (31%) samples, with Escherichia coli (n = 729 [29%]) and β-hemolytic Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus (733 [28%]) being most common. Resistance to antimicrobials changed over time for E coli, S equi subsp zooepidemicus, and Enterobacteriaceae isolates. Overall, E coli was most resistant to trimethoprim-sulfonamide and ampicillin and least to amikacin and enrofloxacin. For S equi subsp zooepidemicus, resistance was greatest to oxytetracycline and enrofloxacin and least to ceftiofur and ticarcillin with or without clavulanic acid. Inflammatory response was greater for S equi subsp zooepidemicus.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—E coli and S equi subsp zooepidemicus were the most common pathogens recovered from uterine samples, with S equi subsp zooepidemicus more commonly associated with inflammation. Antimicrobials most commonly used empirically to treat endometritis are appropriate on the basis of these data. However, as antimicrobial resistance changes over time, susceptibility assays should aid antimicrobial selection.
On September 30, 2016, the US National Veterinary Services Laboratory confirmed an autochthonous case of New World screwworm infestation in a Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) from Big Pine Key, Fla. This case marked the first identification of a sustained and reproducing population of New World screwworm flies in the United States since 1966. Multiple federal, state, and local government agencies collaborated to initiate a response to the outbreak. Efforts were successful in eradicating the flies from Florida.