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  • Author or Editor: Hayley Scott x
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Objective—To evaluate whether immunosuppressive doses of cyclosporine (CsA) have an adverse effect on the liver, kidney, and pancreatic beta cells of pigs.

Animals—8 juvenile 8-week-old Landrace X Large White crossbred pigs.

Procedure—CsA (100 to 140 mg/kg) was administered orally to euglycemic pigs to reach whole blood trough concentrations of approximately 1500 ng/mL. To determine pancreatic beta cell function, plasma Cpeptide and insulin concentrations were measured in response to IV administration of glucose, glucagon, arginine, and oral administration of glucose. Effects on liver and kidney were determined by monitoring serum measurements of liver function and serum creatinine concentrations, respectively.

Results—Plasma concentrations of C-peptide were significantly lower in euglycemic CsA-treated pigs, compared with control pigs, following IV administration of glucose, glucagon, arginine, and oral administration of glucose. Furthermore, the glucose clearance rate was decreased in euglycemic CsA-treated pigs, compared with control pigs. Serum creatinine concentrations and 4 of 7 serum measurements of liver function were not adversely affected by CsA administration. Serum concentrations of bilirubin and albumin were significantly increased, and serum alanine aminotransferase activity was significantly decreased in CsA-treated pigs, compared with control pigs. Histologic evaluation of liver and kidney sections revealed no pathologic findings in CsA-treated or control pigs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In our study, immunosuppressive doses of CsA caused an impairment of porcine pancreatic beta cell function, but did not have toxic effects on the kidney. However, on the basis of changes in serum bilirubin and albumin concentrations and alanine aminotransferase activity, subclinical toxic effects on the liver did occur when immunosuppressive doses of CsA were administered. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1501–1506)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To evaluate the effects of a flotation vest (FV) and water flow rate (WFR) on limb kinematics of dogs swimming against a current.


7 (1 male and 6 female) healthy adult Siberian Huskies.


Dogs were habituated to swim with and without an FV beside an investigator in a continuous-flow pool against WFRs up to 2.9 km/h. During each of 4 experimental sessions in a repeated-measures study, markers were wrapped around the right carpus and tarsus, and a video was recorded while each dog swam with or without an FV for about 2 minutes at each of 7 WFRs between 0 and 2.9 km/h when the WFR was incrementally decreased or increased. Motion tracking software was used to measure stroke excursion and frequency.


Stroke excursion varied more than frequency among all dogs and in response to changes in experimental conditions. The male dog and 1 female dog were unable to complete the study. For the remaining 5 dogs across all experimental conditions, mean tarsus excursion was 30% that of the carpus. Mean total excursion (sum of the excursion-frequency products for the carpus and tarsus) decreased when an FV was worn and increased with WFR by 69% and 19% when WFR was incrementally increased and decreased, respectively.


In dogs, range of motion during swimming was greater for the carpus than tarsus, when an FV was not worn, and increased more with WFR when WFR was incrementally increased. Those factors should be considered during swimming-based rehabilitation.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research