Objective—To evaluate platelet-neutrophil aggregate (PNA) formation and neutrophil shape as indicators of neutrophil activation in dogs with systemic inflammatory diseases and after blood sample incubation with various platelet and neutrophil agonists.
Animals—20 dogs with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and 10 healthy Beagles.
Procedures—Neutrophils were isolated from blood samples directly after blood sample collection and after incubation of blood samples with phorbol myristate acetate, collagen, adenosine diphosphate, epinephrine, or various concentrations of lipopolysaccharide or arachidonic acid. CD61+ neutrophils as an indicator of PNA formation were evaluated, and neutrophil size and granularity were assessed via flow cytometry.
Results—Dogs with SIRS had more PNA formation, larger neutrophil size, and less granularity relative to control dogs, but no differences were evident when these dogs were grouped by whether they had sepsis (n = 6) or disseminated intravascular coagulation (12). A significant increase in PNA formation occurred after neutrophil incubation with all agonists, and incubation with phorbol myristate acetate elicited the strongest response. Neutrophils increased in size and decreased in granularity after incubation with all agonists except epinephrine. Incubation with lipopolysaccharide or arachidonic acid resulted in a dose-dependent effect on PNA formation and neutrophil shape.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—SIRS appeared to increase the degree of PNA formation and neutrophil shape change. Similar changes after neutrophil incubation with platelet agonists suggested that platelet activation has a role in PNA formation. Additional studies are necessary to determine the clinical importance and diagnostic value of PNA formation in dogs with SIRS and sepsis.
Objective—To characterize underlying diseases and clinical and clinicopathologic variables of thrombocytopenic dogs with and without platelet-bound antibodies (PBAs) and to evaluate clinicopathologic variables of dogs with primary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (IMT).
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—83 thrombocytopenic dogs.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed to identify dogs in which PBA tests were performed between 2004 and 2006; PBAs were measured via flow cytometry.
Results—PBAs were detected in 37 of 83 (45%) dogs. Thirteen dogs were suspected of having primary IMT. Median platelet counts were significantly lower in dogs with PBAs, compared with counts in dogs without PBAs. Dogs suspected of having primary IMT had significantly lower median platelet counts, compared with counts for those with secondary IMT. Mean platelet volume (MPV) was increased (> 14.3 fL) significantly more often in dogs without PBAs (19/33 [58%]) than in dogs with PBAs (7/26 [27%]). No dogs suspected of having primary IMT had an increase in MPV. Examination of bone marrow aspirates revealed an increase in megakaryopoiesis in a higher percentage of dogs with PBAs (14/21 [67%]) than in dogs without PBAs (7/18 [39%]). An increase in megakaryopoiesis was detected in all dogs suspected of having primary IMT that had a bone marrow analysis.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Platelet counts, results of bone marrow analysis, and MPV may be helpful in dogs for the differentiation between primary IMT and thrombocytopenia resulting from other diseases. An MPV within or less than the reference range did not rule out an increase in megakaryopoietic activity.