Objective—To assess the likelihood of an introduction of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) into the Malaysia-Thailand-Myanmar (MTM) peninsula through terrestrial movement of livestock.
Animals—89,294 cattle and buffalo legally moved into the MTM peninsula.
Procedures—A quantitative risk assessment was conducted by use of a stochastic simulation. Patterns of livestock movement were ascertained through review of relevant governmental records and regulations and by interviewing farmers, traders, and local officers when the records did not exist. Parameters identified in the process were the probabilities of livestock having FMD and of FMD infection going undetected during import processes. The probability of an animal accepted for import having FMD was also assessed. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the effects that each parameter had on the model.
Results—The simulation yielded an average consignment prevalence of 10.95%. Typically, each animal in a quarantine facility had a 2.7% chance of having an inapparent form of FMD infection; hence, it was likely an animal would not be identified as infected. Findings revealed that the mean probability of an animal accepted for import having FMD was 2.9%, and the risk was as high as 11%.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the model allowed for the evaluation of movement regulations currently imposed in the MTM peninsula. Evidence from the study suggested that current practices in animal movement were far from efficient in preventing introduction of FMD-infected animals into the MTM region, and additional measures will be necessary.
Objective—To develop a method for percutaneous
collection of fetal fluid from cattle in the late stages of
gestation and determine whether bovine viral diarrhea
virus (BVDV) can be isolated from such fluids.
Animals—169 pregnant beef cattle.
Procedure—Animals were restrained in a squeeze
chute, and hair was clipped from a region of the right
flank. Pregnancy was confirmed, and fetal fluids were
identified by means of abdominal ultrasonography.
Fetal fluid was collected with a spinal needle. Virus
isolation was performed on fetal fluids, WBC lysates
from 160 live calves, and tissues from 12 calves that
died or were aborted. Blood samples collected from
adult cattle were assayed with an immunoperoxidase
Results—Fourteen animals aborted or delivered premature
calves within 3 weeks after fetal fluid collection;
however, it could not be determined whether
this was a complication of the procedure or attributable
to other factors. Results of BVDV isolation from
fetal fluid samples were negative for 168 animals.
However, a noncytopathic BVDV was isolated from
fetal fluid obtained from a 2-year-old heifer; results of
the immunoperoxidase assay of serum from this
heifer were also positive, and a noncytopathic BVDV
was isolated from tissue specimens from a stillborn
calf produced by this heifer.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that fetal fluids can be collected percutaneously
from cattle in the late stages of gestation and that
virus isolation performed on fetal fluids can be used
to identify fetuses infected with BVDV in utero.
However, safety of the procedure could not be evaluated.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1348–1352).
Objective—To assess the impacts of the introduction of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and various FMD control programs in southern Thailand.
Animals—A native population of 562,910 cattle and 33,088 buffalo as well as 89,294 animals legally transported into southern Thailand.
Procedures—A quantitative risk assessment was used to ascertain the probability of FMD introduction, and an intrinsic dynamic model was used to assess impacts. Value for the transmission rate (β) was estimated. Five scenarios created to assess the impacts of nonstructural protein (NSP) testing, mass vaccination, and culling were examined. Impacts were assessed through an examination of the estimated annual cumulative incidence (ACI) of FMD. The ACIs of various scenarios were compared by use of the Tukey Studentized range technique.
Results—β was estimated at 0.115. Approximately 35,000 cases of FMD would be expected from the baseline situation. A 30% reduction of ACI was detected with the introduction of NSP antibody testing. Prophylactic vaccination resulted in an 85% reduction of ACI. Concurrent use of NSP antibody testing and vaccination reduced the ACI by 96%, and the addition of an eradication policy resulted in a slightly greater decrease in the ACI (98%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The study used epidemiologic models to investigate FMD control interventions. Results suggested that vaccination has more impact than the use of NSP testing. Use of the NSP test reduced ACI during peak seasons, whereas vaccination diminished the underlying incidence. The best mitigation plan was an integrated and strategic use of multiple control techniques.
Objective—To describe the prevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) infection and evaluate factors associated with positive IgM capture ELISA results in equids with clinical signs compatible with WNV infection.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Sample Population—Laboratory submission forms from 1,104 equids tested for WNV in Colorado in 2003.
Procedures—Submission forms accompanying samples submitted for detection of WNV via IgM capture ELISA were obtained from the Colorado state veterinarian and diagnostic laboratories performing the tests. Data on signalment, clinical signs, history of vaccination against WNV, and assay results were collected from laboratory submission forms. Equids with clinical signs compatible with WNV infection in which IgM capture ELISA results were positive were considered as case equids.
Results—1,104 equids were tested for WNV; 1,017 (92.1%) had clinical signs compatible with WNV infection. Among equids with clinical signs compatible with WNV infection, the odds of testing positive for WNV via IgM capture ELISA were lower in males and in vaccinated equids and higher in equids with moderate and severe illness, compared with females, unvaccinated equids, and equids with mild illness.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Among equids with clinical signs compatible with WNV infection, vaccination against WNV, severity of clinical signs, duration of illness, and region in Colorado were associated with increased risk of having a positive IgM capture ELISA result.