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  • Author or Editor: Hakyoung Yoon x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the feasibility of radiographic measurement of liver area in small-breed dogs and to assess correlations between CT liver volume measurements (reference standard) and radiographic liver size measurements.

ANIMALS

107 small-breed dogs (body weight, ≤ 10 kg) that had previously undergone orthogonal thoracic and abdominal radiography and abdominal CT.

PROCEDURES

In a retrospective study design, dogs were allocated to groups (normal liver [n = 36], microhepatia [34], and hepatomegaly [37]) on the basis of radiographic liver size and clinicopathologic findings. Radiographic liver area (RLA) was automatically calculated from archived radiographic images by free-hand outlining of the liver margins by use of DICOM viewer software, and other standard radiographic measurements were performed. Liver volume was measured on CT images. Intraoperator repeatability of RLA and CT measurements was assessed (duplicate measurements 2 weeks apart). To control for various breed conformations, radiographic values were normalized to body weight and T11 area.

RESULTS

Mean ± SD ratios of RLA to T11 area and RLA to body weight for dogs with normal livers were 32.7 ± 6.2 and 7.0 ± 1.4, respectively. Excellent intraobserver agreement was observed in RLA measurements within groups (intraclass correlation coefficients, 0.861 to 0.989), and RLA measurements had the highest correlation with CT liver volume measurements (r = 0.94) of all radiographic measurements.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings indicated that RLA measurement in small-breed dogs with or without liver disease was useful and accurate for estimation of liver size, compared with CT measurement, and might be particularly useful for monitoring of changes in liver size.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To fluoroscopically evaluate the effects of head posture and sedation on the laryngopharyngeal anatomic structures in dogs.

ANIMALS

6 clinically normal Beagles (mean age, 6.2 years; mean weight, 10.4 kg).

PROCEDURES

Each dog was sedated and placed in right lateral recumbency, and fluoroscopic examinations were performed with flexed, neutral, and extended head postures (FHP, NHP, and EHP, respectively). During 3 respiratory cycles, the angle between the basisphenoid bone and nasopharyngeal dorsal border (ABN), thickness of the soft palate, diameter of the nasopharyngeal lumen (DNL), overlapping length between the epiglottis and soft palate, and distance between the epiglottis and tympanic bulla (DET) were measured and percentage difference in the DNL (PDNLD) during a respiratory cycle was calculated.

RESULTS

For the FHP, NHP, and EHP, median ABN was 91.50° (interquartile range [IQR], 86.75° to 95.00°), 125.00° (IQR, 124.50° to 125.50°), and 160.00° (IQR, 160.00° to 163.50°), respectively, with no significant differences between ABN and posture angle. For the FHP, median DNL and DET significantly decreased, compared with values for the NHP, and median thickness of the soft palette significantly increased. For the EHP, the minimal DNL and DET significantly increased, and the median overlapping length between the epiglottis and soft palate significantly decreased, compared with values for the NHP. The PDNLD significantly increased and decreased with FHP and EHP, respectively, compared with the PDNLD with NHP. Sedation did not affect upper airway structure changes.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that head posture significantly affected the laryngopharyngeal structures in dogs. Fluoroscopic examination of the upper respiratory tract of a dog should be performed with an NHP to minimize posture-induced changes in measurements.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research