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  • Author or Editor: Hajime Nagahata x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate serum lipid peroxide (LPO) and α-tocopherol concentrations and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in captive bottle-nosed dolphins and to evaluate effects of storage on production of LPO in various marine fish.

Animals—16 bottle-nosed dolphins.

Procedure—8 dolphins (group A) were fed chub mackerel and herring (high fat) and arabesque greenling and banded blue-sprat (low fat); the other 8 dolphins (group B) were fed chub mackerel and Pacific saury (high fat) and shishamo smelt and Japanese horse mackerel (low fat). Each group had been on these respective diets for 3 years. Serum LPO and α-tocopherol concentrations, serum SOD activity, and superoxide production by neutrophils were measured. All types of marine fish were frozen at –20 C for 6 months, and concentrations of LPO were measured at various time points.

Results—Serum LPO concentrations in group-A dolphins were significantly higher than those in group B. Serum α-tocopherol concentrations and SOD activity in group A were significantly lower than those in group B. A significant negative correlation was found between serum LPO and α-tocopherol concentrations in all 16 dolphins. The LPO concentrations in mackerel and herring fed to group-A dolphins were higher than those of other fish. Concentrations of LPO in herring stored for 3 and 6 months at –20 C were higher than those in herring before freezing and in herring stored for 1 month.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Serum LPO and α-tocopherol concentrations in captive bottlenosed dolphins may be strongly influenced by high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acid and LPO found in marine fatty fishes. High concentrations of serum LPO, as found in group-A dolphins, were associated with decreased antioxidative states. Monitoring of serum LPO and α-tocopherol concentrations and serum SOD activity may be useful for the management of captive marine mammals. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1952–1956)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Chemotaxis under agarose was evaluated to establish an assay system and to characterize chemotactic responses of canine neutrophils. A method for the measurement of canine neutrophil chemotaxis was established, with optimal responses obtained with agarose containing 10% pooled canine serum, a concentration of 5 × 105 cells/well, zymosan-activated serum (zas), or autologous serum or plasma as the chemoattractants, and a 120-minute incubation period. Canine neutrophils responded well to zas, heat-inactivated zas, autologous serum and plasma, and heat-inactivated pooled serum. Chemotactic activity was proportional to the concentration of serum used as the chemoattractant. Mean (± sd) random migration, chemotaxis, chemotactic index, and chemotactic differential of neutrophils from 9 healthy Greyhounds were 1.09 (± 0.23), 1.95 (± 0.38), 1.82 (± 0.31), and 0.86 (± 0.32) mm, respectively.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Marked differences in bone marrow cellularity were observed between cattle affected with leukocyte adhesion deficiency (lad) and control cattle. The number of nucleated cells in bone marrow was 2.9 to 8.8 times higher in cattle affected with lad, compared with controls. The myeloid-to-erythroid ratio of bone marrow from 3 cattle affected with lad ranged from 2.4 to 12. Deficient CD18 expression on neutrophils isolated from bone marrow of cattle with lad was clearly detected by flow cytometric analysis. Neutrophils from bone marrow of cattle affected with lad appeared round and not flat, after adherence to plastic wells under agarose, whereas neutrophils from bone marrow of clinically normal cattle were firmly spread on the surface of plastic wells. In the chemotaxis under-agarose assay, many pseudopodia were detected on bone marrow neutrophils from clinically normal cattle, but were not detected on bone marrow neutrophils from cattle with lad. Activities of chemotactic movements and phagocytosis of neutrophils isolated from bone marrow of cattle affected with lad were documented to be severely impaired.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Leukocyte adhesion deficiency was diagnosed in 4 Holstein calves from 1 to 4 months old. Calves had severe ulcers on oral mucous membranes, gingivitis, severe periodontitis, chronic pneumonia, and stunted growth associated with severe neutrophilia. Neutrophils from affected calves had function defect, characterized by severely decreased adherence, chemotactic movements, phagocytosis, luminol-dependent chemiluminescent response, and O- 2-producing activities. Deficient CD18 expression (0.1 to 1.7%) on neutrophils was clearly detected by use of flow cytometric analysis. These affected calves were linked to a common ancestral sire that has been documented to be a carrier. Clinical features, leukocyte functional abnormalities, deficient expression of CD18, and mode of inheritance indicated that affected calves had leukocyte adhesion deficiency. In vitro leukocyte functional abnormalities were associated with deficiency in the expression of CD11/CD18. Pathologic findings indicated possible increased susceptibility to infection associated with this disease.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Lymphocyte functions in cattle affected with leukocyte adhesion deficiency (lad, termed blad in cattle) were evaluated by lymphocyte markers, blastogenic response, and immunoglobulin concentrations; mononuclear phagocyte functions were assessed by chemotactic and luminol-dependent chemiluminescent (cl) responses to determine the effects of impaired expression of leukocyte CD18 on mononuclear cell functions. Deficient CD18 expression on lymphocytes and mononuclear phagocytes from cattle with blad was clearly detected by use of flow cytometric analysis. There were no significant differences in the population of peanut agglutinin (pna)-positive and surface immunoglobulin-bearing blood lymphocytes from clinically normal cattle and cattle with blad, as determined by flow cytometric analysis. Lymphocytes from cattle with blad had strong mitogen-induced blastogenic responses, which were greater than those from controls. Adherence of mononuclear phagocytes from cattle with blad was markedly impaired, and their chemotactic responses had diminished values, compared with those of controls. Luminol-dependent cl of mononuclear phagocytes from affected cattle, stimulated by opsonized zymosan, had significantly (P < 0.01) decreased values, compared with those of controls. Concentrations of IgG were markedly increased in serum from cattle with blad, compared with those in controls. These results indicated that impaired expression of leukocyte CD18 has marked effects on adhering activity of mononuclear phagocytes, and significantly inhibits cl response of mononuclear phagocytes mediated by inactivated-complement 3b-dependent functions. High selective immunoglobulin concentrations indicated that lymphocytes of B-cell lineage may have normal function.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research