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  • Author or Editor: H. W. Leipold x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

The effects of intra-articular administration of dimethylsulfoxide (dmso) on chemically induced synovitis in the middle carpal joint of 6 weanling horses were evaluated. Following aseptic collection of synovial fluid, the middle carpal joint of each forelimb was injected with 50 mg of Namonoiodoacetate to induce synovitis. Eight days after injection, synovial fluid was obtained and the right middle carpal joints were injected with 2 ml of 40% dmso in lactated Ringer solution. The corresponding joints of the left limb (control) were injected with 2 ml of lactated Ringer solution. Sampling and treatments were repeated on postinjection days 11 and 14, for a total of 3 treatments. Horses were visually evaluated daily for lameness and joint effusion. Synovial fluid was evaluated for color and clarity, differential and total WBC count, total protein content, and hyaluronic acid concentration. The Kaegi gait analysis system provided an objective assessment of lameness prior to inducing synovitis, again on day 7, and on day 17. At necropsy (day 17), synovial fluid, synovial membrane, and articular cartilage specimens were collected.

Joint effusion was evident 12 hours after injection of Namonoiodoacetate in all joints. Mild lameness was evident at 24 hours; however, the lameness resolved by 72 hours. Objective assessment of lameness did not reveal significant differences between treatment or control limbs. Hyaluronic acid concentrations increased significantly (P = 0.023) above baseline values in most joints over the study period. Synovial fluid wbc counts increased significantly (P = 0.002) following Na-monoiodoacetate injection and remained significantly (P = 0.002) above baseline values throughout the study. There was a significantly greater decrease (P = 0.04) in total wbc counts between the pretreatment and final sampling period in the dmso-treated joints, compared with the controls. Histologic evaluation of synovial membrane samples revealed a significantly less inflammatory response in 4 of 6 dmso-treated joints, compared with that in the controls. Histochemical staining of articular cartilage did not reveal any observable difference between treated or control specimens.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Experimental pneumonia caused by Pasteurella haemolytica was induced in 2-week-old gnotobiotic (n = 4) and conventional (n = 6) calves by endobronchial inoculation into the right caudal lung lobe of 7.9 × 1010 ± 0.6 × 1010 (mean ± sd) colony-forming units of P haemolytica in the 6-hour log phase of growth. The calves were studied for 24 hours or less. Regression lines for the relationship between clinical index and time for the gnotobiotic group and conventional group of calves were compared, and the clinical index was found to be significantly (P ≤ 0.005) more rapid in the gnotobiotic group. There was also a significant difference in the preinoculation, absolute segmented neutrophil count (P ≤ 0.05), and in the total serum protein, albumin, and globulin values (P ≤ 0.05). Comparison of the preinoculation and post inoculation blood cell and blood chemical values revealed a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in the numbers of band neutrophils and fibrinogen in conventional calves, and a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in the total wbc count in gnotobiotic calves. Necropsy of both groups of calves revealed a circular to oblong lesion that was congested, edematous, and firm, and which occupied 20% to 100% of the right caudal lung lobe and involved the remaining lung lobes to a more minor degree. When mean lesion scores of the 2 groups of calves were compared, no significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) was found. Microscopic examination of the lungs revealed edema of the perivascular and interlobular septa and hemorrhage in the alveoli of both groups, although the conventional group had more fibrinopurulent inflammation.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia of the right caudal lung lobe was experimentally induced in 2-week-old Holstein calves (n = 11) by endobronchial inoculation of 7.9 × 1010 colony-forming units of 6-hour log-phase bacteria. Calves were studied for 72 hours after inoculation. The challenge procedure consistently induced a lesion in the right caudal lung lobe, which was consistent radiographically with results of pathologic examination and a similar volume of bronchography contrast medium. Clinically, the calves developed a significant increase in rectal temperature within 24 hours after inoculation. Seventy-two hours after inoculation, the total wbc counts, absolute band neutrophil counts, monocyte counts, and blood fibrinogen concentrations were significantly higher than normal and albumin concentration was significantly decreased. Necropsy revealed a circular to oblong lesion that was congested, edematous, and firm and occupied 20 to 40% of the right caudal lung lobe. Histologic examination revealed a severe acute inflammatory reaction characterized by cellular exudate and proteinaceous fluid in the alveoli, interlobular septa, and pleura.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association