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SUMMARY

A single dose of digoxin was injected, iv, into 5 mature male turkeys (0.066 mg/kg of body weight), 8 male ducks (0.066 mg/kg), and 6 roosters (0.33 mg/kg). Twenty-three serial venous blood samples were collected before (baseline) and after the administration of digoxin to turkeys, ducks, and roosters. Plasma concentrations of digoxin were determined in duplicate by a radioimmunoassay that was validated for avian species. The plasma concentrations were best fitted by a 3 (turkeys, ducks)- and 2 (roosters)- compartment open model, with first-order elimination from the central compartment. Significant (P < 0.05) kinetic differences were determined among species. Mean half-life (t½) for ducks, roosters, and turkeys were 8.30 ± 2.70 (mean ± SD), 6.67 ± 3.50, and 23.7 ± 4.8 hours, respectively. The volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) was 14.7 ± 2.9, 3.13 ± 0.49, and 2.27 ± 0.36 L/kg, and total body clearance (cl) of drug was 1.54 ± 0.43, 0.461 ± 0.187, and 0.136 ± 0.022 L/h/kg for ducks, roosters, and turkeys, respectively. The mean residence time was 10.3 ± 3.9, 8.37 ± 4.97, and 16.8 ± 2.2 hours, respectively. Volume of distribution at steady state and cl in ducks were several fold higher than that in turkeys. The terminal half-life of digoxin determined for ducks and roosters in this study was considerably shorter than those previously reported for several mammalian species.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the distribution for limbs and bones in horses with fractures of the proximal sesamoid bones and relationships with findings on palmarodorsal radiographic images.

Sample Population—Proximal sesamoid bones obtained from both forelimbs of cadavers of 328 racing Thoroughbreds.

Procedure—Osteophytes; large vascular channels; and fracture location, orientation, configuration, and margin distinctness were categorized by use of high-detail contact palmarodorsal radiographs. Distributions of findings were determined. Relationships between radiographic findings and fracture characteristics were examined by use of χ2 and logistic regression techniques.

Results—Fractures were detected in 136 (41.5%) horses. Biaxial fractures were evident in 109 (80%) horses with a fracture. Osteophytes and large vascular channels were evident in 266 (81%) and 325 (99%) horses, respectively. Medial bones typically had complete transverse or split transverse simple fractures, indistinct fracture margins, > 1 vascular channel that was > 1 mm in width, and osteophytes in abaxial wing and basilar middle or basilar abaxial locations. Lateral bones typically had an oblique fracture and distinct fracture margins. Odds of proximal sesamoid bone fracture were approximately 2 to 5 times higher in bones without radiographic evidence of osteophytes or large vascular channels, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Biaxial fractures of proximal sesamoid bones were common in cadavers of racing Thoroughbreds. Differences between medial and lateral bones for characteristics associated with fracture may relate to differences in fracture pathogeneses for these bones. Osteophytes and vascular channels were common findings; however, fractures were less likely to occur in bones with these features.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research