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Summary

Serum bile acid concentrations were measured after food had been withheld for 12 hours (fasting serum bile acid [ fsba] concentration) and 2 hours after a meal (postprandial serum bile acid [ psba] concentration) using a direct enzymatic procedure in 108 cats clinically suspected of having hepatobiliary disease. In all cats, liver tissue was examined histologically to confirm the diagnosis. Twenty-six cats did not have histologic evidence of hepatobiliary disease and served as controls. The remaining 82 cats had hepatobiliary disease including hepatic lipidosis (n = 20), portosystemic vascular anomaly (n = 24), hepatic necrosis (n = 13), hepatic neoplasia (n =8), or cholestatic hepatic disease (n = 17). Sensitivity and specificity of measuring fsba and psba concentrations were calculated for each test alone and when results were interpreted in combination (ie, in series and in parallel), and were compared with sensitivity and specificity of routinely used serum biochemical tests, including measuring serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and γ- glutamyltransferase, and measuring serum concentrations of cholesterol, bun, and total bilirubin.

When tests were considered individually, determination of fsba and psba concentrations had higher specificity than did the other tests (using a cutoff of 15 μmol/L for fsba concentration and of 20 μmol/L for psba concentration). Determination of psba concentration had the highest sensitivity of all single tests in cats with hepatic lipidosis, portosystemic vascular anomaly, or cholestasis; determination of alanine aminotransferase activity or psba concentration had the highest sensitivity for cats with hepatic neoplasia; and determination of aspartate aminotransferase activity had the highest sensitivity for cats with hepatic necrosis. For all cats with hepatobiliary disease, determination of psba concentration had the highest sensitivity of any single test.

Combination testing using results of measuring total serum bile acid concentrations in conjunction with results of measuring serum enzyme activity or total bilirubin concentration gave the best overall test performance. Results indicate that both the fsba and psba concentration should be determined, but that if paired samples cannot be collected, the psba concentration should be preferentially measured. In a small number of cats (6/108), the fsba concentration exceeded the psba concentration.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of carprofen on hemostatic variables in clinically normal dogs.

Animals—12 clinically normal Labrador Retrievers.

Procedure—10 dogs (6 females, 4 males) received carprofen (2.2 mg/kg of body weight, PO, q 12 h) for 5 days. Two dogs (untreated control group; 1 female, 1 male) did not receive carprofen. Hemostatic variables (platelet count, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, fibrinogen, platelet aggregation, and bleeding time) were assessed for all dogs prior to treatment, on day 5 of treatment, and 2 and 7 days after discontinuation of the drug (days 7 and 12). Serum biochemical variables and Hct were assessed prior to treatment and on days 5 and 12.

Results—In dogs receiving carprofen, platelet aggregation was significantly decreased, and onset of aggregation was significantly delayed on days 5, 7, and 12, compared with pretreatment values. Activated partial thromboplastin time was significantly increased on days 5, 7, and 12 over pretreatment values in treated dogs, but values remained within reference ranges. Significant differences were not detected in buccal mucosal bleeding time, other serum biochemical and hemostatic variables, or Hct, compared with pretreatment values and the internal control group.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Administration of carprofen for 5 days causes minor but not clinically important alterations in hemostatic and serum biochemical variables in clinically normal Labrador Retrievers. Carprofen is commonly used to treat osteoarthritis and chronic pain in dogs, but prior to this study, its effect on platelet aggregation and hemostatic variables was unknown. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1642–1646)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The ability of ectopic parathyroid tissue to support calcium homeostasis was evaluated by measuring serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, albumin, magnesium, and parathyroid hormone before and for 12 weeks after bilateral thyroparathyroidectomy in 14 cats. During the immediate postoperative period, significant decrease was observed in serum calcium, magnesium, and parathyroid hormone (pth) concentrations. Serum pth concentration remained subnormal and did not significantly increase during the 12-week observation period. Despite persistent hypoparathyroidism, serum calcium and magnesium concentrations gradually increased. Ectopic parathyroid tissue is not capable of maintaining normal serum calcium concentration immediately after thyroparathyroidectomy. Serum calcium concentration gradually normalizes after thyroparathyroidectomy, apparently by means of a pth-independent mechanism.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate coagulation variables in 2 groups of dogs after tromethamine administration.

Animals

13 Beagles.

Procedures

Both groups of dogs received a 30-minute IV infusion of 10 ml of 0.3M tromethamine/kg of body weight. In unsedated dogs (group 1, n = 8), prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, normalized ionized calcium concentration, platelet numbers, and platelet function were measured prior to treatment, at the end of the infusion, and 1 hour after the infusion. In xylazine-sedated dogs (group 2, n = 5), buccal mucosal bleeding time and plasma percentage of von Willebrand factor antigen were measured before and 1 hour after infusion, and fibrin degradation products concentration was measured 1 hour after infusion. Platelet function was assessed by determining platelet aggregation and by measuring ATP release from the aggregating platelets over 6 minutes, using a whole blood aggregometer, with 20, 10, and 5 μM ADP and 5 and 10 μg of collagen/ml as platelet activation agonists.

Results

There was no significant change in any of the variables measured in either group of dogs, compared with baseline values.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

When administered to healthy dogs, tromethamine does not change the coagulation indices measured. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:777–780)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate buffering capacity and side effects of equivalent doses of tromethamine (THAM) and sodium bicarbonate (BIC).

Animals

18 purebred dogs.

Procedure

Acidosis was induced by having dogs breathe a hypoxic gas mixture (FIO2 = 0.10) until arterial base balance ≤ −7.5 mEq/L was reached. Dogs then received a 30-minute infusion of 5% BIC (n = 6) or 0.3M THAM (n = 8), and Fio2 increased to 0.30. Drug doses were calculated to correct base balance to zero.

Results

During hypoxia, for BIC- and THAM-treated groups, median (interquartile range [Q1, Q3]) pHa and arterial base balance decreased to 7.16 (7.07, 7.38) and 7.19 (7.11, 7.31), −14 (−16, 9) and −12 (−16, −11) mEq/L, respectively, and mixed venous lactate concentration increased to 7 (2, 15) and 6 (3, 13) mmol/L, respectively. Immediately after each infusion, acid-base and cardiopulmonary variables returned toward baseline. For respective BIC- and THAM-treated groups, pHa increased to 7.37 (7.26, 7.44) and 7.40 (7.33, 7.49) and base balance increased to 0 (−4, 7) and 0 (−4, 2) mEq/L. Lactate concentration decreased only slightly to 5 (2, 6) and 5 (2, 9) mmol/L, but continued to decrease throughout the study. The only significant (P ≤ 0.05) difference between groups was hypernatremia after BIC administration that persisted for 60 minutes. The PaCO2 in BIC-treated dogs increased immediately after infusion, compared with values during hypoxia. Standardized ionized calcium values initially decreased in both groups, but returned to baseline by 60 minutes.

Conclusion

The buffering capacity of THAM is equal to that of BIC, although THAM does not cause the transient hypernatremia or hypercapnia observed after BIC administration. Hypocalcemia may be transient after administration of either solution. Thus, THAM is an acceptable alternative to BIC for treatment of metabolic acidosis in selected anesthetized dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:771–776)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To quantify the effect of season of parturition, parity, and various diseases on time to conception.

Design

Event-time analysis (survival analysis).

Sample Population

44,450 cows delivering calves between September 1985 and September 1986, from 6,227 Ayrshire dairy herds in 80 Finnish communities.

Procedure

Primiparous and multiparous cows were analyzed in separate Cox proportional hazards models for postpartum days 56 to 120. Occurrence of 43 diseases or disorders was recorded; codes were condensed into 25 variables offered to each model. Season of parturition was categorized into spring, summer, and fall-winter; for multiparous cows, 3 categorical variables represented parity. Models controlled for 60-day milk and milk fat production, herd milk production, and community. For all observations, parturition-to-conception interval was plotted against calendar day of parturition.

Results

For multiparous cows, parturition in the spring or summer and being of parity 2 or 3-4 (vs older) increased the chance of conceiving; 10 diseases or disorders decreased this probability. Similarly, in the model for primiparae, parturition in spring or summer increased the probability of conception, and 6 disorders decreased it. Disorders that were detrimental in both models were anestrus, ovulatory dysfunction, other infertility, late metritis, and clinical ketosis.

Conclusions

The effect of season on the parturition- to-conception interval was marked at this latitude. Parturition during late April, causing confluence of postpartum day 55 with the summer solstice, was associated with the shortest parturition-to-conception intervals. Ketosis was found to be an important factor in lengthening the parturition-to-conception interval, highlighting the effect of negative energy balance on postpartum restoration of reproductive function. (Am J Vet Res 1996; 57:640–645)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To quantify the effect of early-lactation milk and milk fat production on time to conception.

Design

Event-time analysis (survival analysis).

Sample Population

44,450 cows delivering calves between September 1985 and September 1986, from 6,227 Ayrshire dairy herds in 80 Finnish communities.

Procedure

Primiparous and multiparous cows were analyzed in separate Cox proportional hazards models. 60-day milk and milk fat production were categorized and regressed against days from parturition to conception for the period 56 to 120 postpartum days, controlling for season of parturition, parity, herd production, occurrence of 43 diseases, and community.

Results

Multiparous cows producing above the 80th percentile for 60-day milk, but with milk fat production below the 75th percentile, were significantly more likely to conceive, compared with cows with lower production and compared with cows with similar milk production but with milk fat between the 75th and 97th percentiles. They were slightly more likely to conceive than cows with highest milk fat production, although not significantly so. Primiparous cows producing above the 80th percentile for 60-day milk with milk fat below the 75th percentile also had the highest conception probability. The highest producing primiparae had significantly lower conception probability than all others.

Conclusions

Controlling for disease occurrence, calving season, parity, herd production level, and community, there appeared to be an inverted U-shaped relation between 60-day production and conception probability.

Clinical Relevance

Primiparous cows that are high producers may not be receiving the same careful management that high-producing multiparous cows receive. (Am J Vet Res 1996; 57:634–639)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—

To determine whether onset of mineralization of the femoral and proximal tibial epiphyses and age at closure of the femoral and acetabular triradiate growth plates was different for Labrador Retrievers that were radiographically normal or that had canine hip dysplasia (CHD).

Design—

Cohort study.

Animals—

36 Labrador Retriever puppies.

Procedure—

Puppies were radiographed every other day from the time they were 8 to 10 days old until ossification of the femoral heads was apparent. Radiographs were then obtained weekly until puppies were 1 month old and then monthly until puppies were 8 to 12 months old. Age at which mineralization was first observed in the proximal and distal femoral and proximal tibial epiphyses and at which the femoral capital, triradiate acetabular, and distal femoral growth plates were no longer radiographically visible were recorded. Fifteen dogs were euthanatized and necropsied to determine whether dogs had CHD.

Results—

There were 26 radiographically normal left and right hip joints and 10 dysplastic left and right hip joints. Onset of mineralization of the proximal femoral epiphyses and of the right proximal tibial epiphysis was significantly later in dysplastic than in radiographically normal puppies. The left femoral capital growth plates closed significantly later in dysplastic than in radiographically normal joints, but other differences in growth plate closure were not detected.

Clinical Implications—

Endochondral ossification may be abnormal in dogs with CHD. The disease appears to affect multiple joints, even though it is most evident clinically in the hip joint. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210: 1458–1462)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine effects of oral administration of Yunnan Baiyao on platelet activation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis in healthy horses.

ANIMALS 12 healthy adult horses.

PROCEDURES In a randomized blinded crossover study that included a 4-week washout period between treatments, horses were orally administered a paste containing Yunnan Baiyao (15 mg/kg) or placebo at 12-hour intervals for 3 days. Blood samples were collected before start of treatment (time 0) and at 24 and 72 hours for a CBC, measurement of fibrinogen concentration, coagulation screening tests, and a panel of assays to assess platelet activation (including ADP- and collagen-induced aggregation and closure times, flow-cytometric variables of platelet-leukocyte aggregates, platelet membrane P-selectin and phosphatidylserine expression, and microparticle release), von Willebrand factor (vWF) concentration, and cofactor activity. In addition, thrombelastography was used to evaluate fibrin formation in tissue factor–activated whole blood and plasma and to assess tissue plasminogen activator–induced plasma fibrinolysis. For each treatment, values obtained before and 72 hours after start of administration were compared by use of Wilcoxon signed rank tests.

RESULTS Yunnan Baiyao treatment had no significant effect on any hemostatic variable, compared with results for the placebo treatment.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Administration of Yunnan Baiyao at a dosage typically used in clinical practice had no effect on in vitro measures of platelet or vWF function and no enhancement of fibrin-clot formation or stability. Any hemostatic actions of Yunnan Baiyao may require higher dosages or result from cell-surface interactions at sites of vascular and tissue injury not examined in this study.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare morphologic diagnoses determined from needle biopsy specimens obtained from the livers of dogs and cats with morphologic diagnoses determined from wedge biopsy specimens.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—124 dogs and cats.

Procedure—2 needle biopsy specimens were obtained from each animal; wedge biopsy specimens were obtained from the same liver lobe during laparotomy or postmortem examination. Histologic features were scored independently by 3 individuals; a morphologic diagnosis was rendered after histologic features were scored. Cases were included only if at least 2 of the 3 examiners agreed on the morphologic diagnosis; the definitive diagnosis was considered to be the morphologic diagnosis rendered for the wedge biopsy specimen. Physical characteristics (length, width, surface area, degree of fragmentation, and number of portal triads for needle biopsy specimens and surface area for wedge biopsy specimens) were determined.

Results—Definitive diagnoses included hepatic necrosis (n = 10), cholangitis-cholangiohepatitis (13), chronic hepatitis-cirrhosis (12), canine vacuolar hepatopathy (11), portosystemic vascular anomaly-microvascular dysplasia (17), neoplasia (10), miscellaneous hepatic disorders (18), and no hepatic disease (33). For individual examiners, the morphologic diagnosis assigned to needle biopsy specimens agreed with the morphologic diagnosis assigned to wedge biopsy specimens for 56 and 67% of the specimens. All 3 examiners agreed on the morphologic diagnosis assigned to needle and wedge biopsy specimens for 44 and 65% of the specimens, respectively. Morphologic diagnoses assigned to needle biopsy specimens concurred with the definitive diagnosis for 59 of 124 (48%) animals.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that needle biopsy specimens of the liver from dogs and cats must be interpreted with caution. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1483–1490)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association