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  • Author or Editor: H. Mark Saunders x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine ultrasonographic findings in cats with clinical, gross pathologic, and histologic evidence of acute pancreatic necrosis.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—20 cats.

Procedure—Ultrasound reports and permanent ultrasonographic images were reviewed, and ultrasonographic findings were recorded. Thoracic and abdominal radiographs were also reviewed, when available. Anatomic localization of pancreatic necrosis was determined from the gross pathology report; duration and severity of pancreatic necrosis were determined by reviewing histologic specimens. The presence of concurrent disease was recorded from the final pathology report.

Results—The pancreas was considered ultrasonographically normal in 10 cats and was not observed in 3. Ultrasonographic findings were considered compatible with pancreatitis in the remaining 7 cats. Gross pathologic findings indicated that pancreatitis was multifocal in all 7 of these cats; histologically, pancreatitis was acute or subacute in 5 and associated with severe or moderate necrosis in 6. In the remaining 13 cats, gross pathologic findings indicated that pancreatitis was multifocal (n = 8) or focal (2), or gross pathologic findings were normal (3). Histologically, pancreatitis was peracute or acute in 11 of these 13 cats and associated with severe or moderate necrosis in 8. Thoracic and abdominal radiographic findings were nonspecific.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of ultrasonography were consistent with a diagnosis of pancreatitis in only 7 of 20 cats with acute pancreatic necrosis in the present study. This suggests that new diagnostic criteria must be established if abdominal ultrasonography is to be an effective tool in the diagnosis of pancreatitis in cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1724–1730)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine signalment, history, and outcome of cats with gastrointestinal tract intussusception and to identify physical examination, diagnostic imaging, surgical, histologic, and necropsy findings in affected cats.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—20 cats with intussusception.

Procedures—Medical records were evaluated for information on signalment; history; physical examination, diagnostic imaging, surgical, histologic, and necropsy findings; and outcome.

Results—Ten cats were < 1 year old, and 9 were ≥ 6 years old. Anorexia (14/17), lethargy (12/17), and vomiting (12/17) were the most common reasons for examination. Dehydration (13/18), poor body condition (12/18), signs of abdominal pain (8/18), and an abdominal mass (8/18) were the most common physical examination findings. Abdominal radiography revealed intestinal obstruction in all 10 cats in which it was performed; abdominal ultrasonography revealed intussusception in all 7 cats in which it was performed. The most common intussusception was jejuno-jejunal (8/20), and no intussusceptions were found proximal to the duodenum. Eleven of 13 cats that underwent laparotomy required intestinal resection and anastomosis. Histologic examination revealed intestinal lymphoma or inflammatory bowel disease in 7 of 8 cats ≥ 6 years old and idiopathic intussusception in 7 of 8 cats < 1 year old.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that in cats, intussusception has a bimodal age distribution, is most commonly jejuno-jejunal, often requires surgical resection and anastomosis, is often associated with alimentary lymphoma or inflammatory bowel disease in older cats, and is readily diagnosed by means of ultrasonography.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate early medical and behavioral effects of deployment to the World Trade Center, Fresh Kills Landfill, or the Pentagon on responding search-and-rescue (SAR) dogs.

Design—Prospective double cohort study.

Animals—The first cohort included SAR dogs responding to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks (deployed), and the second cohort included SAR dogs trained in a similar manner but not deployed (controls). Enrollment occurred from October 2001 to June 2002.

Procedure—Dogs were examined by their local veterinarians; thoracic radiographs and blood samples were shipped to the University of Pennsylvania for analysis. Handlers completed medical and training histories and a canine behavioral survey.

Results—Deployed dogs were older and had more search experience than control dogs. Serum concentrations of globulin and bilirubin and activity of alkaline phosphatase were significantly higher in deployed dogs, independent of age and training. Despite significant differences in several blood parameters, values for both groups were within reference ranges. No pulmonary abnormalities were detected on radiographs, and no significant differences in behavior or medical history were detected between groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Within the first year following the September 11 attacks, there was no evidence that responding dogs developed adverse effects related to their work. Mild but significantly higher serum concentrations of globulin and bilirubin and activity of alkaline phosphatase in deployed dogs suggested higher antigen or toxin exposure. These dogs will be monitored for delayed effects for at least 3 years. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:861–867)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the clinical, clinicopathologic, and imaging findings in dogs with intestinal lymphangiectasia and to compare the histologic grade of lymphangiectasia with clinicopathologic and imaging abnormalities.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—17 dogs with a histologic diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs with a histologic diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia were reviewed for signalment, history, clinical signs, results of exploratory laparotomy, and clinicopathologic, radiographic, ultrasonographic, and histologic findings.

Results—Mean age of dogs was 8.3 years; the most common clinical signs were diarrhea, anorexia, lethargy, vomiting, and weight loss. Abnormal physical examination findings included dehydration, ascites, and signs of pain on palpation of the abdomen. The most notable clinicopathologic findings were low serum ionized calcium concentration and hypoalbuminemia. Abdominal ultrasonography was performed in 12 dogs and revealed intestinal abnormalities in 8 dogs and peritoneal effusion in 7 dogs. Exploratory laparotomy revealed abnormalities in 9 of 16 dogs including thickened small intestine, dilated lacteals, lymphadenopathy, and adhesions. On histologic examination of the small intestine, concurrent inflammation was observed in 15 of 17 dogs, crypt ectasia in 5 of 17, and lipogranulomas in 2 of 17.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intestinal lymphangiectasia in dogs appears to be a heterogeneous disorder characterized by various degrees of panhypoproteinemia, hypocholesterolemia, lymphocytopenia, and imaging abnormalities. In most dogs, the severity of hypoalbuminemia appears to offer the best correlation with severity of histologic lesions of lymphangiectasia. Imaging abnormalities are common in dogs with intestinal lymphangiectasia but are not specific enough to differentiate this disorder from other gastrointestinal disorders, nor are they predictive of histologic severity. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:197–202)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize concurrent disorders in dogs with diabetes mellitus (DM).

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—221 dogs with DM.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and clinical signs, physical examination findings, and results of clinicopathologic testing, urinalysis, aerobic bacterial culture of urine samples, coagulation testing, endocrine testing, histologic evaluation, diagnostic imaging, and necropsy were recorded.

Results—For most dogs, CBC results were normal. Common serum biochemical abnormalities included hypochloremia (127 dogs, 60%) and high alanine aminotransferase (163, 78%), aspartate aminotransferase (78, 71%), and alkaline phosphatase (188, 90%) activities. Venous pH and serum ionized calcium concentration were measured in 121 and 87 dogs, respectively, and were low in 56 (46%) and 41 (47%) dogs. Lipemia was observed in 92 (42%) dogs. Urine samples from 159 (72%) dogs were submitted for aerobic bacterial culture, and 34 (21%) yielded bacterial growth. Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated organism. Thirty-six (16%) dogs had dermatitis or otitis. Hyperadrenocorticism was diagnosed in 51 (23%) dogs on the basis of clinical signs and results of a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (41 dogs), an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test (5), both tests (4), or histologic evaluation of necropsy specimens (1). Acute pancreatitis was diagnosed in 28 (13%) dogs. Eleven (5%) dogs had tumors for which a histologic diagnosis was obtained. Eight (4%) dogs were hypothyroid.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that dogs with diabetes mellitus may have many concurrent disorders. The most commonly identified concurrent disorders included hyperadrenocorticism, urinary tract infection, dermatitis, otitis, acute pancreatitis, neoplasia, and hypothyroidism. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1166–1173)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize clinical, clinicopathologic, radiographic, and ultrasonographic findings in cats with histologically confirmed acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) or chronic nonsuppurative pancreatitis (CP) and identify features that may be useful in the antemortem differentiation of these disorders.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—63 cats with histologically confirmed ANP (n = 30) or CP (33).

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for signalment, clinical signs, concurrent diseases, clinicopathologic findings, and results of radiography and ultrasonography.

Results—Cats in both groups had similar nonspecific clinical signs, physical examination findings, and radiographic and ultrasonographic abnormalities. Abdominal ultrasonographic abnormalities, including hypoechoic pancreas, hyperechoic mesentery, and abdominal effusion, were found in cats in both groups and, therefore, were not specific for ANP. Cats with CP were significantly more likely to have concurrent diseases than were cats with ANP (100 and 83%, respectively). Clinicopathologic abnormalities were similar between groups; however, serum alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher in cats with CP.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that ANP and CP in cats cannot be distinguished from each other solely on the basis of history, physical examination findings, results of clinicopathologic testing, radiographic abnormalities, or ultrasonographic abnormalities. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:469–474)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To investigate subjective and computerized methods of evaluation of color Doppler (CD) and power Doppler (PD) ultrasonographic images (obtained before and after administration of contrast medium) for quantitative assessment of vascularity and perfusion of various naturally occurring tumors in dogs.

Sample Population—34 tumors in 34 dogs.

Procedure—Tumors in dogs were examined via CD and PD ultrasonography before and after IV injection of a microbubble contrast agent (pre- and postcontrast examinations, respectively). Images were digitized for subjective assessment of vessel density and vascular pattern and computer-aided assessment of parameters of vascularity (fractional area [FA]) and perfusion (color-weighted FA [CWFA] and mean color level).

Results—With both analysis methods, more vessels were identified in precontrast PD ultrasonographic images than in precontrast CD ultrasonographic images. Moreover, compared with values for precontrast PD ultrasonography, FA, CWFA, and mean color level were higher for postcontrast PD ultrasonography. In postcontrast images, there was a significant association between vessel densities determined through subjective and computerized assessments. Although sample size was small, vascularity of squamous cell carcinomas was significantly greater than that of other tumor types. Ten of the 19 soft tissue sarcomas had low vessel density with minor contrast enhancement. With increasing gross tumor volume, FA and CWFA decreased for all Doppler ultrasonographic methods.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Higher values of the ultrasonographic parameters representing vascularity and perfusion of tumors in dogs were determined via PD ultrasonography after administration of contrast medium than via PD or CD ultrasonography without administration of contrast medium. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:21–29)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research