Objective—To determine signalment, history, and outcome of cats with gastrointestinal tract intussusception and to identify physical examination, diagnostic imaging, surgical, histologic, and necropsy findings in affected cats.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—20 cats with intussusception.
Procedures—Medical records were evaluated for information on signalment; history; physical examination, diagnostic imaging, surgical, histologic, and necropsy findings; and outcome.
Results—Ten cats were < 1 year old, and 9 were ≥ 6 years old. Anorexia (14/17), lethargy (12/17), and vomiting (12/17) were the most common reasons for examination. Dehydration (13/18), poor body condition (12/18), signs of abdominal pain (8/18), and an abdominal mass (8/18) were the most common physical examination findings. Abdominal radiography revealed intestinal obstruction in all 10 cats in which it was performed; abdominal ultrasonography revealed intussusception in all 7 cats in which it was performed. The most common intussusception was jejuno-jejunal (8/20), and no intussusceptions were found proximal to the duodenum. Eleven of 13 cats that underwent laparotomy required intestinal resection and anastomosis. Histologic examination revealed intestinal lymphoma or inflammatory bowel disease in 7 of 8 cats ≥ 6 years old and idiopathic intussusception in 7 of 8 cats < 1 year old.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that in cats, intussusception has a bimodal age distribution, is most commonly jejuno-jejunal, often requires surgical resection and anastomosis, is often associated with alimentary lymphoma or inflammatory bowel disease in older cats, and is readily diagnosed by means of ultrasonography.
Objective—To evaluate early medical and behavioral
effects of deployment to the World Trade Center,
Fresh Kills Landfill, or the Pentagon on responding
search-and-rescue (SAR) dogs.
Design—Prospective double cohort study.
Animals—The first cohort included SAR dogs responding
to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks
(deployed), and the second cohort included SAR dogs
trained in a similar manner but not deployed (controls).
Enrollment occurred from October 2001 to June 2002.
Procedure—Dogs were examined by their local veterinarians;
thoracic radiographs and blood samples
were shipped to the University of Pennsylvania for
analysis. Handlers completed medical and training
histories and a canine behavioral survey.
Results—Deployed dogs were older and had more
search experience than control dogs. Serum concentrations
of globulin and bilirubin and activity of alkaline
phosphatase were significantly higher in deployed
dogs, independent of age and training. Despite significant
differences in several blood parameters, values
for both groups were within reference ranges. No pulmonary
abnormalities were detected on radiographs,
and no significant differences in behavior or medical
history were detected between groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Within the first
year following the September 11 attacks, there was no
evidence that responding dogs developed adverse
effects related to their work. Mild but significantly higher
serum concentrations of globulin and bilirubin and
activity of alkaline phosphatase in deployed dogs suggested
higher antigen or toxin exposure. These dogs
will be monitored for delayed effects for at least 3
years. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:861–867)
Objective—To determine ultrasonographic findings in
cats with clinical, gross pathologic, and histologic evidence
of acute pancreatic necrosis.
Procedure—Ultrasound reports and permanent ultrasonographic
images were reviewed, and ultrasonographic
findings were recorded. Thoracic and abdominal
radiographs were also reviewed, when available.
Anatomic localization of pancreatic necrosis was
determined from the gross pathology report; duration
and severity of pancreatic necrosis were determined
by reviewing histologic specimens. The presence of
concurrent disease was recorded from the final
Results—The pancreas was considered ultrasonographically
normal in 10 cats and was not observed in
3. Ultrasonographic findings were considered compatible
with pancreatitis in the remaining 7 cats. Gross
pathologic findings indicated that pancreatitis was
multifocal in all 7 of these cats; histologically, pancreatitis
was acute or subacute in 5 and associated with
severe or moderate necrosis in 6. In the remaining 13
cats, gross pathologic findings indicated that pancreatitis
was multifocal (n = 8) or focal (2), or gross pathologic
findings were normal (3). Histologically, pancreatitis
was peracute or acute in 11 of these 13 cats and
associated with severe or moderate necrosis in 8.
Thoracic and abdominal radiographic findings were
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of
ultrasonography were consistent with a diagnosis of
pancreatitis in only 7 of 20 cats with acute pancreatic
necrosis in the present study. This suggests that new
diagnostic criteria must be established if abdominal
ultrasonography is to be an effective tool in the diagnosis
of pancreatitis in cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1724–1730)
Objective—To characterize the clinical, clinicopathologic,
and imaging findings in dogs with intestinal lymphangiectasia
and to compare the histologic grade of
lymphangiectasia with clinicopathologic and imaging
Animals—17 dogs with a histologic diagnosis of
Procedure—Medical records of dogs with a histologic
diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia were
reviewed for signalment, history, clinical signs, results
of exploratory laparotomy, and clinicopathologic, radiographic,
ultrasonographic, and histologic findings.
Results—Mean age of dogs was 8.3 years; the most
common clinical signs were diarrhea, anorexia, lethargy,
vomiting, and weight loss. Abnormal physical examination
findings included dehydration, ascites, and signs of
pain on palpation of the abdomen. The most notable clinicopathologic
findings were low serum ionized calcium
concentration and hypoalbuminemia. Abdominal ultrasonography
was performed in 12 dogs and revealed
intestinal abnormalities in 8 dogs and peritoneal effusion
in 7 dogs. Exploratory laparotomy revealed abnormalities
in 9 of 16 dogs including thickened small intestine, dilated
lacteals, lymphadenopathy, and adhesions. On histologic
examination of the small intestine, concurrent
inflammation was observed in 15 of 17 dogs, crypt ectasia
in 5 of 17, and lipogranulomas in 2 of 17.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intestinal lymphangiectasia
in dogs appears to be a heterogeneous
disorder characterized by various degrees of panhypoproteinemia,
and imaging abnormalities. In most dogs, the severity of
hypoalbuminemia appears to offer the best correlation
with severity of histologic lesions of lymphangiectasia.
Imaging abnormalities are common in dogs with intestinal
lymphangiectasia but are not specific enough to differentiate
this disorder from other gastrointestinal disorders,
nor are they predictive of histologic severity. (J Am
Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:197–202)
Objective—To characterize concurrent disorders in
dogs with diabetes mellitus (DM).
Animals—221 dogs with DM.
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and
clinical signs, physical examination findings, and
results of clinicopathologic testing, urinalysis, aerobic
bacterial culture of urine samples, coagulation testing,
endocrine testing, histologic evaluation, diagnostic
imaging, and necropsy were recorded.
Results—For most dogs, CBC results were normal.
Common serum biochemical abnormalities included
hypochloremia (127 dogs, 60%) and high alanine
aminotransferase (163, 78%), aspartate aminotransferase
(78, 71%), and alkaline phosphatase (188,
90%) activities. Venous pH and serum ionized calcium
concentration were measured in 121 and 87 dogs,
respectively, and were low in 56 (46%) and 41 (47%)
dogs. Lipemia was observed in 92 (42%) dogs. Urine
samples from 159 (72%) dogs were submitted for
aerobic bacterial culture, and 34 (21%) yielded bacterial
growth. Escherichia coli was the most commonly
isolated organism. Thirty-six (16%) dogs had dermatitis
or otitis. Hyperadrenocorticism was diagnosed in
51 (23%) dogs on the basis of clinical signs and
results of a low-dose dexamethasone suppression
test (41 dogs), an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation
test (5), both tests (4), or histologic evaluation
of necropsy specimens (1). Acute pancreatitis was
diagnosed in 28 (13%) dogs. Eleven (5%) dogs had
tumors for which a histologic diagnosis was obtained.
Eight (4%) dogs were hypothyroid.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that dogs with diabetes mellitus may have many
concurrent disorders. The most commonly identified
concurrent disorders included hyperadrenocorticism,
urinary tract infection, dermatitis, otitis, acute pancreatitis,
neoplasia, and hypothyroidism. (J Am Vet Med
Objective—To investigate subjective and computerized
methods of evaluation of color Doppler (CD) and
power Doppler (PD) ultrasonographic images
(obtained before and after administration of contrast
medium) for quantitative assessment of vascularity
and perfusion of various naturally occurring tumors in
Sample Population—34 tumors in 34 dogs.
Procedure—Tumors in dogs were examined via CD
and PD ultrasonography before and after IV injection
of a microbubble contrast agent (pre- and postcontrast
examinations, respectively). Images were digitized
for subjective assessment of vessel density and
vascular pattern and computer-aided assessment of
parameters of vascularity (fractional area [FA]) and
perfusion (color-weighted FA [CWFA] and mean color
Results—With both analysis methods, more vessels
were identified in precontrast PD ultrasonographic
images than in precontrast CD ultrasonographic
images. Moreover, compared with values for precontrast
PD ultrasonography, FA, CWFA, and mean color
level were higher for postcontrast PD ultrasonography.
In postcontrast images, there was a significant
association between vessel densities determined
through subjective and computerized assessments.
Although sample size was small, vascularity of squamous
cell carcinomas was significantly greater than
that of other tumor types. Ten of the 19 soft tissue
sarcomas had low vessel density with minor contrast
enhancement. With increasing gross tumor volume,
FA and CWFA decreased for all Doppler ultrasonographic
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Higher values
of the ultrasonographic parameters representing vascularity
and perfusion of tumors in dogs were determined
via PD ultrasonography after administration of
contrast medium than via PD or CD ultrasonography
without administration of contrast medium. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:21–29)
Objective—To characterize clinical, clinicopathologic,
radiographic, and ultrasonographic findings in cats
with histologically confirmed acute necrotizing pancreatitis
(ANP) or chronic nonsuppurative pancreatitis
(CP) and identify features that may be useful in the
antemortem differentiation of these disorders.
Animals—63 cats with histologically confirmed ANP
(n = 30) or CP (33).
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for signalment,
clinical signs, concurrent diseases, clinicopathologic
findings, and results of radiography and
Results—Cats in both groups had similar nonspecific
clinical signs, physical examination findings, and radiographic
and ultrasonographic abnormalities. Abdominal
ultrasonographic abnormalities, including hypoechoic
pancreas, hyperechoic mesentery, and abdominal effusion,
were found in cats in both groups and, therefore,
were not specific for ANP. Cats with CP were significantly
more likely to have concurrent diseases than
were cats with ANP (100 and 83%, respectively).
Clinicopathologic abnormalities were similar between
groups; however, serum alanine aminotransferase and
alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher
in cats with CP.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that ANP and CP in cats cannot be distinguished from
each other solely on the basis of history, physical examination
findings, results of clinicopathologic testing, radiographic
abnormalities, or ultrasonographic abnormalities.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:469–474)