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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Metabolic and production responses are reported for 72 cows treated with bovine somatotropin (bst) for 30 days starting at day 70 of lactation. Of these 72 cows, 48 had been exposed in the preceding lactation to long-term treatment with bst at 3 dosages and 24 (controls) had not been given bst. Approximately half of the cows in each group were parity-2 cows, the rest were older. Comparisons between groups were made separately for parity-2, and older cows.

Analyses, using pretreatment values of each variable as a covariate, indicated that older cows, but not parity-2 cows, significantly (P < 0.05) increased milk production during treatment. Parity-2 cows, however, had a significantly higher milk fat percentage than controls following treatment. Cows treated with 51.6 or 86 mg bst/d in both parity groups had significantly higher serum-free fatty acids than controls. Estimated net energy balances were significantly lower for older treated cows, but did not significantly differ from controls for parity-2 treated cows. Older cows in the 86 mg of bst/d group tended to have higher concentrations of blood glucose than did older control-group cows. Treatment with bst did not significantly increase serum ketone concentrations in any group of animals, and none of the cows developed clinical ketosis during this period.

Estimated net energy balance (eneb) during treatment was a significant (P < 0.05) covariate for free fatty acid concentrations in older cows and for milk fat percentage in parity-2 cows. Covariate adjusted analyses, using eneb during treatment as a covariate, indicated that lipolytic stimuli already acting may be enhanced by treatment with bst, but a negative energy balance was not a necessary precondition for free fatty acid concentrations to increase following somatotropin treatment. Similarly, milk fat percentages for parity-2 treated cows were significantly (P < 0.05) higher during treatment than controls when eneb during treatment was used as a covariate.

Increased milk fat concentrations in parity-2 treated cows were not associated with significant increases in the ratio of C18:C4-10 milk fatty acids, indicating that increased milk fat resulted from either an increase in incorporation of C18 fatty acids into milk fat coupled with an increase in de novo mammary synthesis of C4-10 milk fatty acids or an increase in C12-16 fatty acids that may arise either from increased tissue mobilization, from diet, or from de novo mammary synthesis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the diversity of Salmonella serotypes isolated from a large population of cull (market) dairy cows at slaughter.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Sample PopulationSalmonella organisms isolated from the cecal-colon contents of 5,087 market dairy cows.

Procedure—During winter and summer 1996, cecalcolon contents of cull dairy cows at slaughter were obtained from 5 US slaughter establishments. Specimens were subjected to microbiologic culturing for Salmonella spp at 1 laboratory. Identified isolates were compared with Salmonella isolation lists published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL) for approximately the same period. The Simpson diversity index was used to calculate the likelihood that Salmonella isolates selected randomly by establishment were different.

Results—Of 58 Salmonella serotypes identified, Salmonella ser. Montevideo was the most prevalent. Two of the top 10 CDC serotypes identified from humans in 1996, Salmonella ser. Typhimurium and S Montevideo, appeared on our top 10 list; 8 of the top 10 were found on NVSL listings. Thirty-one of 59 S Typhimurium isolates were identified as DT104 and found at a west slaughter establishment, 30 during the winter and 1 during the summer. The greatest diversity of serotypes was at a southeast establishment during the summer; the least diversity was at a central establishment in the winter.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—58 Salmonella serotypes were isolated from market dairy cows at slaughter and could pose a threat for food-borne illness. Salmonella Montevideo was the most frequently isolated serotype and may contribute substantially to salmonellosis in dairy cattle. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1216–1220)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of Salmonella spp in the cecal-colon contents of cull (market) dairy cows at slaughter because of potential public health ramifications.

Design—Survey study.

Sample Population—Cecal-colon contents collected from 5,087 cull (market) dairy cows at slaughter at 5 slaughter establishments across the United States.

Procedure—During 2 periods of the year, winter (January and February) and summer (July through September), 5 cull (market) cow slaughter establishments in the United States—west (WE), southeast (SEE), central (CE), north central (NCE), and south central (SCE)—establishments were visited, and cecalcolon contents of cull dairy cows were obtained at the time of slaughter. Samples were examined by microbiologic culture at a single laboratory for Salmonella spp.

ResultsSalmonella spp were detected in 23.1% of cecal-colon content samples from cull dairy cows across the 5 slaughter establishments. The highest site prevalence (54.5%) was detected at the WE during the summer period, whereas the lowest was found at the CE during the summer (4.3%) and at the NCE during the winter (4.5%). Considerable variation in the daily prevalence of Salmonella spp was found, particularly at the WE and the SCE. Salmonella spp were isolated from 93% of cecal-colon contents collected on a summer day at the WE.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results strongly suggest that there is a high prevalence of Salmonella spp in cull dairy cows at slaughter, which could burden Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point programs implemented in slaughter establishments. Procedures to reduce Salmonella load at the dairy farm and during transport to slaughter could reduce the risk of spread during the slaughter process. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1212–1215)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association