Objective—To determine the incidence of unilaterally castrated horses among horses admitted to the hospital for castration and to compare horses that underwent previous unilateral castration with horses that had cryptorchism.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—16 unilaterally castrated horses and 44 cryptorchid horses.
Procedures—Medical records of horses that were admitted to the veterinary medical teaching hospital for castration, including cryptorchid and unilaterally castrated horses, between January 2002 and December 2006 were reviewed. Medical records of unilaterally castrated horses and cryptorchid horses were examined for age, breed, history, diagnostic procedures, surgical technique of cryptorchidectomy, location of the retained testicle, and cost of surgery.
Results—Of 160 horses admitted for castration, 16 (10%) had undergone previous unilateral castration and 44 (27.5%) had cryptorchidism. Unilaterally castrated horses were significantly older than cryptorchid horses. No significant difference was found in left versus right distribution of testicles. No significant difference was found in abdominal versus inguinal distribution of left-sided testicles. Unilaterally castrated horses had a significantly lower proportion of right inguinal testicles, compared with cryptorchid horses. The cost of diagnosis and management of unilaterally castrated horses was significantly greater than in cryptorchid horses.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the distribution of retained testicles is significantly different in unilaterally castrated horses, compared with cryptorchid horses, which may affect the selection of diagnostic and surgical approaches to unilaterally castrated horses.
A 12-year-old castrated male Quarter Horse was examined because of a puncture wound over the left maxillary sinus ventral to the facial crest. Left nasal epistaxis was noticed the morning of the examination. Physical and oral examinations revealed that the horse also had a firm, movable mass that communicated with the oral cavity. The mass was rostral to the puncture wound. Signs of pain were not elicited during examination. The owner reported that the mass had been evident for approximately 10 years. Digital radiographic images of the skull were obtained (Figure 1).
Objective—To compare effects of the locking-loop
suture pattern (LLP) and 3-loop pulley (3LP) suture
pattern for tenorrhaphy on the intrinsic vasculature of
the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of horses
in vitro after surgery.
Sample Population—16 forelimbs obtained from 8
Procedure—Tenotomy and subsequent tenorrhaphy
was performed in anesthetized horses. Following systemic
administration of heparin, horses were euthanatized
and the limbs were removed and placed
under tension to load the flexor tendons. The intrinsic
vasculature was then perfused with a mixture of barium
sulfate and water. Four-millimeter sections of the
SDFT were prepared for microangiographic analysis.
Mean vessel density was calculated for each section
by use of a grid consisting of 1.5-mm2 vascular
assessment squares (VAS). Comparisons were made
among the control, LLP, and 3LP groups.
Results—Mean ± SD vessel density was 3.11 ± 0.38,
1.47 ± 0.47, and 2.01 ± 0.63 perfused vessels/1.5 mm2
for control, LLP, and 3LP groups, respectively.
Significant differences in vascular density were
detected between the control and 3LP groups, control
and LLP groups, and LLP and 3LP groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of the
LLP and 3LP pattern has deleterious effects in vitro on
the intrinsic vasculature of the SDFT. However, the
3LP pattern was less disruptive to the intrinsic vasculature,
compared with the effects for the LLP. Use of
the 3LP tenorrhaphy suture pattern in clinical situations
may result in less damage to the intrinsic vasculature
of the SDFT of horses during convalescence.
( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:279–282)
Objective—To evaluate healing of pinch-grafted
wounds on the distal aspect of the limbs of ponies
bandaged with equine amnion or a standard nonadherent
wound dressing material.
Procedure—A 2.5 × 2.5-cm full-thickness section of
skin was removed from the dorsal aspect of each
limb at the midpoint of the metacarpus or metatarsus.
Six days later, wounds were grafted with partial-thickness
pinch grafts. Half the wounds were bandaged
with amnion, and the other half were bandaged with
a nonadherent dressing. Bandages were changed
every 3 days until wound healing was complete. At
each bandage change, numbers of grafts lost were
recorded, and wounds were measured.
Results—Percentage of grafts lost from wounds bandaged
with amnion was not significantly different
from percentage lost from wounds bandaged with
the nonadherent dressing. Median healing time for
wounds bandaged with amnion (30 days) was significantly
less than median healing time for wounds bandaged
with the nonadherent dressing (39 days). All
wounds were healed by day 45.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that amnion can be used for bandaging pinchgrafted
wounds on the distal aspect of the limbs of
ponies. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:326–329)
Objective—To determine lactate breakpoint of horses
and test for effects of training and dietary supplementation
with corn oil on that breakpoint.
Animals—7 healthy Arabian horses.
Procedures—Horses received a control diet (n = 4) or a
diet supplemented with 10% corn oil (4). A training program,
which comprised two 5-week conditioning periods
with 1 week of rest, was initiated. Submaximal
incremental exercise tests (IET) were conducted before
the first and after both conditioning periods. Blood samples
for determination of blood lactate and plasma glucose
concentrations were collected 1 minute before IET
and during the 15 seconds immediately preceding each
speed change. Data collected were fit to one- and twoslope
broken-line models and an exponential model.
Results—Good fits were obtained by application of
the broken-line models (adjusted R2 > 0.92) to blood
lactate concentration versus speed curves. Lactate
breakpoints increased 41% after training but were
not affected by diet. After training, slope 2 and peak
blood lactate concentrations were greater in the corn
oil group, compared with controls. Mean blood lactate
concentration at the breakpoint was not affected by
training or diet. Plasma glucose concentration versus
speed curves also fit the broken-line models, and glucose
breakpoints preceded lactate breakpoints by
approximately 1 m/s in the second and third IET.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Lactate
breakpoints can be determined for horses, using
blood lactate concentration versus speed curves generated
during submaximal IET and may be useful for
assessing fitness and monitoring training programs in
equine athletes. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:144–151)