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  • Author or Editor: H. D. Petersen x
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Summary

Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (hscas), an anticaking agent for agricultural feeds, was added to aflatoxin (af)-contaminated diets of 3 lactating dairy cows and evaluated for its potential to reduce aflatoxin M1 (afm 1) residues in milk. During phase I, cows were fed alternating diets that consisted of 200 μg of af/kg of feed for 7 days, 0.5% hscas plus 200 μg of af/kg of feed for 7 days, and feed with the hscas removed for a final 7 days. The afm 1 milk concentrations from the intervals with hscas added to diets were compared with those times when hscas was absent. The presence of 0.5% hscas in feed containing 200 μg of af/kg reduced afm 1 secretion into the milk by an average of 0.44 μg/L (from pretreatment of 1.85 μg/L to 1.41 μg/L with hscas, a 24% reduction). Following a 10-day period of noncontaminated feed consumption and no afm 1 residues in the milk, phase II of the study was begun. The same experimental design as phase I was used, but the dosages of hscas and af were changed to 1.0% and 100 μg/kg of feed, respectively. The addition of 1.0% hscas in feed containing 100 μg of af/kg decreased afm 1 content in the milk by an average of 0.40 μg/L (from a pretreatment of 0.91 μg/L to 0.51 μg/L when hscas was present, a 44% reduction). These findings suggest that hscas, a high-affinity sorbent compound for af in vitro, is capable of reducing the secretion of afm 1 into milk.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices of deer owners following identification of a cluster of captive deer with rabies as an aid for the development of rabies prevention educational materials.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Population—Captive-deer owners who were members of the Pennsylvania Deer Farmers Association.

Procedures—Information was obtained via a mailed, self-administered questionnaire.

Results—The questionnaire response rate was 59% (249/425). One hundred three of 206 (50%) respondents had incomplete knowledge of rabies virus vectors, transmission, severity, and prevention measures. Birds or snakes were incorrectly identified as rabies vectors by 96 of 213 (45%) respondents, and most (≥ 94%) respondents identified rabies virus reservoirs as vectors. Ninety of 231 (39%) respondents identified death as an outcome of rabies, and 184 of 235 (78%) respondents would seek emergency treatment if they suspected exposure. Only 62 of 235 (26%) respondents would wash a wound immediately. The majority of respondents (173/239 [72%]) did not know the clinical signs of rabies in deer. Nine respondents indicated that they vaccinated their deer against rabies, and the majority of respondents (158/214 [74%]) would be willing to vaccinate.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings suggested that deer owners in Pennsylvania have a basic knowledge of rabies; however, knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding prevention of rabies transmission could be improved considerably. Rabies educational materials for deer owners should focus on postexposure procedures, disease severity, recognition of rabies in deer, and changes in management practices such as vaccination to prevent rabies.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association