Objective—To characterize acute inflammatory and hemostatic surgical stress responses following castration in cats and to evaluate whether the addition of local anesthesia to the anesthetic protocol attenuates these responses.
Animals—39 male cats.
Procedures—Cats undergoing castration were randomly assigned to 2 groups: both groups underwent surgery with general anesthesia, and 1 group additionally received a local anesthetic (lidocaine [2.0 mg/kg in total, divided intratesticularly and SC]) prior to incision. Blood samples were collected after anesthetic induction (baseline) and 1, 5, and 24 hours later. Thromboelastography and coagulation variables (activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT] and prothrombin time [PT]) were analyzed; fibrinolysis was assessed with plasma D-dimer concentrations. The acute-phase response was evaluated via measurement of plasma fibrinogen and serum amyloid A (last time point, 28 hours) concentrations. Hematologic variables were analyzed at baseline and 1, 5, and 24 hours later.
Results—Evidence of hemostatic and inflammatory activation after surgery was detected in both groups. Maximum amplitude and G (global clot strength) were significantly increased at 24 hours, and significant, but not clinically relevant, decreases were detected in aPTT at 5 and 24 hours and in PT at 24 hours, compared with baseline values. Serum amyloid A concentrations were significantly higher at 24 and 28 hours than at baseline, and plasma fibrinogen concentration was significantly increased at 24 hours; WBC and RBC counts and Hct were significantly increased at multiple time points. No differences between groups were detected for any variables.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Castration appeared to induce hypercoagulability and an acute-phase inflammatory response in cats. Local anesthesia with lidocaine did not attenuate this response.