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  • Author or Editor: Héctor Sumano x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the concentration of tilmicosin in mammary gland secretions of dairy cows following administration of an experimental preparation once or twice during the dry period (45-day period immediately prior to calving during which cows are not milked) and to evaluate its efficacy for the treatment of cows with intramammary infections (IMIs) caused by Staphylococcus aureus at dry off (cessation of milking; first day of dry period), compared with that of an intramammary infusion of ceftiofur.

ANIMALS 172 cows.

PROCEDURES Milk samples were collected for microbiological culture 5 days before dry off and at calving and 15 and 30 days after calving. Cows with Staphylococcus IMIs were randomly assigned to receive an experimental preparation of tilmicosin (20 mg/kg, SC) once at dry off (n = 58) or at dry off and again 20 days later (56) or receive a long-acting intramammary preparation of ceftiofur (500 mg/mammary gland; 56) at dry off. Mammary gland secretions were collected from 5 cows in the tilmicosin-treated groups every 5 days after dry off until calving for determination of tilmicosin concentration.

RESULTS Mean maximum concentration of tilmicosin in mammary gland secretions ranged from 14.4 to 20.9 μg/mL after the first dose and was 17.1 μg/mL after the second dose. The bacteriologic cure rate was 100% for all 3 treatments. Tilmicosin was detectable for 0 and 18 days after calving in the milk of cows treated with 1 and 2 doses of tilmicosin, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Administration of an experimental preparation of tilmicosin (20 mg/kg, SC) once to dairy cows at dry off might be useful for the treatment of S aureus IMIs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics after SC administration of an experimental, long-acting parenteral formulation of doxycycline hyclate in a poloxamer-based matrix and after IV and IM administration of an aqueous formulation of doxycycline hyclate in goats.

Animals—30 clinically normal adult goats.

Procedures—Goats were allocated to 3 groups (10 goats/group). One group of goats received doxycycline hyclate (10 mg/kg) IM, a second group received the same dosage of doxycycline hyclate IV, and the third group received the long-acting parenteral formulation of doxycycline hyclate SC. Serum concentrations of doxycycline were determined before and at various intervals after administration.

Results—The long-acting parenteral formulation of doxycycline hyclate had the greatest bioavailability (545%); mean ± SD maximum serum concentration was 2.4 ± 0.95 μg/mL, peak time to maximum concentration was 19.23 ± 2.03 hours, and elimination half-life was 40.92 ± 4.25 hours.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the long-acting parenteral formulation of doxycycline hyclate distributed quickly and widely throughout the body after a single dose administered SC, and there was a prolonged half-life. Bioavailability of the longacting parenteral formulation of doxycycline hyclate after SC administration was excellent, compared with bioavailability after IV and IM administration of an aqueous formulation of doxycycline hyclate. Although no local tissue irritation and adverse effects were detected, clinical assessment of drug-residues and toxicologic evaluations are warranted before this long-acting parenteral formulation of doxycycline hyclate can be considered for use in goats with bacterial infections.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate chemotactic, phagocytic, and bactericidal activities of bovine and porcine alveolar macrophages (AM) exposed to tilmicosin.

Animals—12 healthy calves and 12 healthy pigs.

Procedure—Lungs were obtained immediately after euthanasia; AM were collected by means of bronchoalveolar lavage and density gradient centrifugation. Chemotactic activity was evaluated by exposing AM to lipopolysaccharide or macrophage inhibitory peptide during incubation with tilmicosin. Phagocytic activity was evaluated by incubating AM with tilmicosin for 24 hours and then with tilmicosin-resistant Salmonella serotype Typhimurium. Bactericidal activity was evaluated by incubating AM with tilmicosin (0, 10, or 20 µg/ml for bovine AM; 0 or 10 µg/ml or 10 µg/ml but washed free of tilmicosin for porcine AM) and then with Mannheimia haemolytica (bovine AM) or with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae or Pasteurella multocida(porcine AM).

Results—Tilmicosin had no significant effects on chemotactic or phagocytic activities of bovine or porcine AM. The time-course of bactericidal activity was best described by polynomial equations. Time to cessation of bacterial growth and area under the time versus bacterial number curve were significantly affected by incubation of AM with tilmicosin.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results show that bactericidal activity of bovine and porcine AM was enhanced by tilmicosin, but not in proportion to the reported ability of AM to concentrate tilmicosin intracellularly. With or without exposure to tilmicosin, the time-course of bactericidal activity of bovine AM against M haemolytica and of porcine AM against A pleuropneumoniae or P multocida was too complex to be reduced to a simple linear equation. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:36–41)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research