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Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the effect of a porous bovine-derived collagen membrane (pbcm) on the rates of wound healing, cellular events, presence of granulation tissue, and appearance at termination of the study in surgically created full-thickness cutaneous wounds of the distal portion of the extremities of horses.

Design

Treated wounds (n = 12) received a pbcm dressing and control wounds were covered with a nonadherent dressing. Forelimbs and hind limbs were cross paired; the right forelimb and left hind limb always received the same dressing application, as did the left forelimb and right hind limb. Limbs pairs were then randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 dressings.

Animals

Six healthy male horses (3 sexually intact, 3 geldings) ranging from 2 to 10 (mean, 6.5) years and weighing between 278 and 568 (mean, 408.5) kg were studied.

Procedure

Full-thickness skin wounds (6.25 cm2) were created on the dorsal metatarsi and metacarpi of the experimental animals. A preformed pbcm dressing was evaluated in half the wounds (n = 12). Control wounds (n = 12) were dressed with a nonadherent gauze dressing. At each bandage change, wounds were subjectively assessed and were photographed, and measurements of horizontal and vertical wound dimensions were documented. Wound biopsy specimens obtained on days 2, 5, 7, 10, 21, and 31 were evaluated for presence of collagen, fibrin, inflammation, epithelium, and cellular elements of healing. Planar morphometry was used to determine total wound area and granulation area from the wound photographs. Percentage of contraction and epithelialization were calculated from these values. Linear regression analysis of the square root of the total wound area and the granulation area was performed. Wound area measurements were analyzed, using anova for repeated measures. Regressions were compared, using covariance analysis and anova. Significance was considered at P < 0.05.

Results

Fibrin score, neutrophil score, and degree of inflammation were significantly greater in the pbcm-treated wounds. No significant differences in the total wound, epithelialized, or contraction areas were detected between the pbcm-treated and control (nonadherent-treated) wounds. Rates of wound healing were not statistically different between the 2 treatment groups, though they were significantly slower in the hind limbs, compared with the forelimbs. Scabs were formed more frequently in the pbcm-treated wounds.

Conclusions

Application of a porous collagen bandage was not detrimental to full-thickness cutaneous wound healing in horses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Medical records were reviewed for 12 cattle with septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint that were treated by use of facilitated ankylosis. Information on signalment, clinical signs, digit affected, radiographic findings, and type and duration of treatment were compiled. Owners were contacted for information about the convalescent period, reasons for culling, productivity, and outcome. Outcome was classified as successful or unsuccessful on the basis of lameness, growth pattern, and whether the cattle were subsequently productive. Cause of the septic arthritis was unknown in 9 of 12 (75%) cattle. Eleven of 12 (92%) cattle represented beef breeds. Cattle were lame for a mean of 5.3 weeks before admission. In 8 of 12 (67%) cattle, a trephine was used in the creation of an arthrostomy, the middle and distal phalanges were curetted, and the joint was lavaged with isotonic solution. A drill bit was used in 4 of 12 (33%) cattle to remove articular cartilage and facilitate ankylosis.

Convalescent period after discharge from the hospital was 1 to 7 months (mean, 4 months; median, 4 months). After that period, all cattle had an apparently normal gait. Eight of 12 (67%) cattle were maintained in their herd of origin. None of the cattle were culled because of lameness. Two of 12 (17%) cattle had a deformation of the affected digit. According to the criteria for successful outcome that were used in the study reported here, the success rate was 100%. Treatment of septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint by use of facilitated ankylosis is an alternative to digit amputation and is recommended to promote longevity and productivity.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Three laparoscopic procedures were performed on each of 6 adult Jersey cows in the first trimester of gestation to describe normal laparoscopic anatomy of the bovine abdomen. Also, a technique for laparoscopy of the cranioventral portion of the abdomen was described. Right paralumbar fossa, left paralumbar fossa, and cranioventral midline laparoscopy were performed 72 hours apart on each cow. Physical examination findings, cbc, serum biochemical analysis, and peritoneal fluid analysis before and 72 hours after the first surgery were used to assess the effects of the procedures on the cows. Exploratory celiotomy was performed 2 weeks after the last laparoscopy. The cows were then reexamined 6 weeks after the last procedure. The t-test for paired data was used for statistical analysis; the level of significance was P < 0.05. Laparoscopy was performed without complication in all cows. Adverse effects of laparoscopy, individually or serially, were not observed. Significant differences were not found between cbc, serum biochemical, and peritoneal fluid variables taken before and 72 hours after surgery.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Eight adult female cattle (6 Holstein, 1 Jersey, 1 Brown Swiss) were used to determine the antagonistic effects of tolazoline, an α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, on xylazine-induced (via caudal epidural administration) depression of cns, respiratory, and cardiovascular activity and rumen motility. A 2% solution of xylazine HCl was injected into the epidural space at the first coccygeal interspace, using a dosage of 0.05 mg/kg of body weight, diluted to a 5-ml volume with sterile water, and administered at a rate of approximately 1 ml/30 s. Eight minutes after xylazine injection, either tolazoline (0.3 mg/kg) or saline solution (4 ml) was administered iv. All 8 cattle were treated, using both regimens in a random sequence; at least 1 week elapsed between treatments. Epidurally administered xylazine induced caudal analgesia (S3 to coccyx), as evaluated by no response to superficial and deep muscular pinprick, and induced sedation, cardiopulmonary depression, and inhibition of rumen motility, but all cattle remained standing. Tolazoline effectively reversed xylazine-induced rumen hypomotility, and partially antagonized xylazine-induced cardiopulmonary depression without affecting sedation and desirable local (S3 to coccyx) analgesic effects.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Medical records of 35 cattle with small-intestinal volvulus were reviewed. Surgical correction was performed on 32 cattle, and 17 of these cattle were discharged from the hospital. Mean duration of clinical signs for survivors was not significantly different from that for nonsurvivors, and the most commonly recorded clinical signs were abdominal pain, anorexia, lethargy, abdominal distention, and dehydration. Physical examination of cattle with intestinal volvulus revealed tachycardia, tachypnea, and nor-mothermia. Rectal examination findings included distended small intestine, scant feces or mucus, and tight bands coursing dorsoventrally in the middle portion of the abdomen. Clinicopathologjc testingre-vealed azotemia, hypocalcemia, hyperglycemia, and leukocytosis with a left shift. Nonsurvivors had significantly lower mean preoperative venous blood phi and mean base excess and higher mean serum potassium concentration than did survivors.

A diagnosis of volvulus of the entire small intestine was made during surgery in 25 cattle, whereas volvulus of the distal jejunum and ileum was diagnosed during surgery in 7 cattle. Survival rate following surgical correction of volvulus of the entire small intestine (44%) was not significantly different from survival rate following surgical correction of volvulus of the distal jejunum and ileum (86%). However, survival rate for dairy cattle (63%) was significantly higher than survival rate for beef cattle (22%).

To determine potential risk factors for the development of small-intestinal volvulus, epidemiologic data from cattle admitted to veterinary teaching hospitals throughout North America were collected by searching records entered into the Veterinary Medical Data Base. Between 1967 and 1991, 190 of 242,745 cattle had small-intestinal volvulus. Surgical correction was performed in 130 cattle, and 75 cattle were discharged from the hospital Among cattle seen at veterinary teaching hospitals, dairy cattle had an increased risk of developing small-intestinal volvulus, compared with beef cattle, and cattle > 7 years old had a decreased risk, compared with cattle < 2 months old. Female cattle were more likely to suffer from intestinal volvulus than were male cattle.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Medical records of 12 calves ≤1 month old, with fracture of the femoral diaphysis, were reviewed. Ten calves were within 1 week of birth at the time of diagnosis. Open reduction was accomplished by use of a lateral approach. Retrograde intramedullary pinning was accomplished in all calves, using 2 (n = 4 calves) or 3 (n = 8 calves) pins. Cerclage wire was used to supplement fixation in 7 calves. A closed continuous suction drain was placed along the lateral aspect of the femur in every calf.

Postsurgical complications included seroma formation over the middle gluteal musculature (n = 5 calves), pin migration (n = 6 calves), and osteomyelitis (n = 1 calf). Pin migration was observed in 4 calves that had been treated with nonthreaded trochar point pins.

Fractures in 10 of 12 calves (83%) were considered to have healed satisfactorily. One calf was euthanatized because of septic osteomyelitis of the femur. One calf was euthanatized because of persistent lameness and pin migration. Pins were removed in 8 of 12 calves (67%) between the 13th and 90th postoperative days. Results of this study indicate that application of intramedullary pins may be a useful solution for management of femoral diaphyseal fracture in young calves.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The effect of right paralumbar fossa exploratory celiotomy and omentopexy on peritoneal fluid constituents was studied in 22 adult dairy cows. Six cows were eliminated on the basis of physical examination findings (n = 2), surgical findings (n = 2), or inability to obtain a sufficient volume of peritoneal fluid (n = 2). Sixteen cattle had normal results of cbc and serum biochemical analysis, and a minimum of 1 ml of peritoneal fluid was obtained by abdominocentesis. Abdominocentesis was repeated on days 1, 2, and 6 after surgery. Statistical analysis for repeated measures was performed, using a significance level of P < 0.05. Stage of gestation was evaluated for interaction with time.

Mean total nucleated cell count was 3,200 cells/μl before surgery, was significantly increased 2 days after surgery (16,336 cells/μl), and continued to increase through day 6 (20,542 cells/μl). Mean polymorphonuclear cell count was 1,312 cells/μl before surgery and was significantly higher at 2 (11,043 cells/μl) and 6 (10,619 cells/μl) days after surgery. Mean lymphocyte count was 254 cells/μl before surgery and was significantly increased 2 days (1,911 cells/μl) after surgery. By day 6, lymphocyte numbers were similar to preoperative values. Mean mononuclear cell count was 770 cells/μl before surgery and was significantly increased on days 1 (3,084 cells/μl), 2 (3,285 cells/μl), and 6 (2,349 cells/μl) after surgery. Mean eosinophil numbers were 1,388 cells/μl before surgery and were significantly increased on day 6 (6,347 cells/μl) only. Interaction between time and stage of gestation was found only for specific gravity and total protein concentration. In general, specific gravity and total protein concentration increased after surgery (mean before surgery, 1.016 and 3.6 g/dl; mean after surgery, 1.021 and 5.6 g/dl). Left paralumbar fossa celiotomy performed 7 days after surgery did not reveal complications of repeated abdominocentesis, and pregnancy status was unchanged.

Peritoneal fluid constituents are highly variable after exploratory celiotomy and omentopexy in cattle. However, results of this study may provide a reference for interpretation of postoperative peritoneal fluid sample findings in cattle.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary:

Medical records of 83 cattle, which had 1 or more digit amputations performed at Kansas State University and The Ohio State University veterinary hospitals between 1971 and 1990, were reviewed. Signalment, duration of lameness, prior treatment, digit involved, and pathologic condition were evaluated. Owners were contacted with regard to the animal's duration in the herd after amputation and reason for exiting the herd, level of production attained, and degree of lameness. The animal was judged to have a good, fair, or poor recovery on the basis of this information.

Septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint and resulting complications were the problems most frequently treated by digit amputation. Fifty-one percent of cattle undergoing digit amputation attained preamputation production levels for a minimum of 24 months. Approximately 30% of cattle undergoing digit amputation were culled for lameness, usually within 7 months of surgery. Cattle remaining in the herd more than 12 months after amputation were unlikely to be culled for lameness, indicating that long-term breakdown of supporting structures was uncommon. Likelihood of a good recovery decreased from 71.4% in cattle weighing ≤ 341 kg to 27.3% in cattle weighing ≥ 682 kg. Cattle undergoing amputation of a rear medial digit were more likely to recover well than those undergoing amputation of either front digit. The most frequently performed amputation was that of a rear lateral digit, but it was associated with the poorest recovery, possibly because of the disproportionate amount of stress placed on this digit. Cattle used for dairy and beef production had approximately equal chances of a good recovery from digit amputation. Duration of lameness prior to surgery and type of lesion did not influence recovery rates.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Sixty bulls with penile hematomas were examined from 1979 through 1990. Thirty-eight bulls underwent surgical correction, 17 bulls were managed by medical treatment, and 5 bulls were not treated. Hereford and Polled Hereford breeds represented the majority (n = 37, 62%) of the bulls, with 10 other breeds representing the remainder (n = 21, 35%) in this study; breed was not reported in 2 bulls. Follow-up information was obtained from owners (40/60) through conversation on the success or failure of treatment, interval of sexual rest, duration of breeding soundness, and final outcome of the bull. Surgical correction was successful in 19 (70%) of 27 cases; medical treatment was successful in 6 (46%) of 13 cases. Of the 8 bulls that had penile hematomas with swelling measuring > 20 cm in width, 6 were successfully treated surgically, compared with 1 of 3 successfully treated medically. Of the bulls with penile hematomas having a swelling measuring ≤ 20 cm in width, 7 of 9 were successfully treated surgically, compared with 4 of 5 successfully treated medically. Duration of the penile hematoma had little effect on the success of surgical correction. Of the bulls allowed sexual rest for > 2 months after treatment was initiated, 6 (25%) of 24 had a recurrence of penile hematoma. Four (40%) of 10 bulls allowed sexual rest for ≤ 2 months had a recurrence of penile hematoma.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association