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Abstract

Objective

To determine bladder neck positional changes between standing and recumbent positions in bitches and whether change is related to continence status or general anesthesia, or both, and to evaluate reproducibility of measurements.

Animals

45 continent animals and 46 incontinent bitches with urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (SMI).

Procedure

Distance between the bladder neck and perineal skin was measured ultrasonographically via the perineum while each dog was conscious in standing and right lateral recumbency and in right lateral recumbency under general anesthesia. Measurements of the bladder neck position obtained in right lateral recumbency under anesthesia were compared with radiographic measurements of the same parameter. Reproducibility of the ultrasonographic measurements of the distance between bladder neck and perineum was assessed on 3 occasions for each position in 50 dogs.

Results

In all dogs, differences in bladder neck position between standing and recumbent conscious-associated positions were not significant. However, caudal bladder neck movement between standing conscious- and recumbent anesthesia-associated positions and between recumbent conscious- and anesthesia-associated positions was significant for all dogs. Incontinent bitches had greater degree of caudal bladder movement during anesthesia. Mean difference in bladder neck positions between recumbent conscious- and recumbent anesthesia-associated positions was 0.24 cm in continent, compared with 0.73 cm in incontinent, bitches. Radiographic measurements were significantly greater than ultrasonographic measurements. Differences between repeated measurements for standing position were not significant, but those for recumbent conscious- and recumbent anesthesia-associated positions were significant.

Conclusions

Additional vesicourethral support mechanisms in continent dogs, are deficient in bitches with SMI, allowing the bladder neck to move further caudad. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:673-679)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objective

To evaluate accuracy of formulas derived from linear ultrasonographic measurements and used in human beings to assess urinary bladder volume as a method of estimating bladder volume in dogs and to test reproducibility of ultrasonographic measurements of linear bladder dimensions.

Animals

64 live dogs (for bladder volume determination) and 31 fresh canine cadavers (for ultrasonographic assessment of reproducibility of measurements).

Procedure

Maximal length, longitudinal and transverse depth (DL and DT), and width were measured from the maximal longitudinal and transverse images. Bladder volume was estimated, using 6 formulas, and calculated volumes were compared statistically with the actual volume obtained by catheterization, using paired nonparametric tests. Reproducibility of bladder dimensions was investigated by measuring length, DL, DT, and width 3 times from each image of section. Measurements of depth (DL and DT) also were compared.

Results

Calculations of bladder volume from linear dimensions, using a formula described for use in human beings, gave a satisfactory indication of actual bladder volume; the median difference between actual and calculated volumes was only 5 ml. Bladder volume estimations were less accurate when large-volume bladders were measured. Matching between repeated measurements was significant (P < 0.005 for longitudinal bladder length and P < 0.0001 for bladder depth and width). Measurements of DL and DT were significantly (P < 0.01) different, with DL greater than DT.

Conclusions

Ultrasonographic assessment of bladder volume in dogs by application of the formula is sufficiently accurate for most clinical purposes.

Clinical Relevance

Ultrasonography would be a useful method of estimating bladder volume in dogs with severe obstruction or dysfunctional voiding of urine. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:10–15)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research