Objective—To describe the pulsed-wave Doppler
tracing of the equine lateral palmar digital artery and
its modification in relation to standardized changes in
Animals—17 healthy Saddlebred horses.
Procedure—Pulsed-wave Doppler examinations of
left and right lateral palmar digital arteries of the horses
were performed. The baseline examination was
performed on each forelimb while horses were standing
squarely with the body weight equally distributed
among the 4 limbs (BED position). For each forelimb,
the examination was repeated during 3 standardized
modifications of the horse's posture (non–weightbearing
[NWB] position, full weight-bearing [FWB]
position, and a position involving hyperextension of
the distal interphalangeal joint [HE position]). In each
position, mean values of systolic peak velocity, first
and second diastolic peak velocity, end-diastolic
velocity, mean velocity, and resistive index were calculated.
Data obtained in each different posture were
Results—No significant differences in blood flow variables
were detected between the left and right forelimbs.
However, significant differences were detected
in values of first diastolic velocity, second diastolic
velocity, mean velocity, and resistive index between
the NWB position and FWB position. Also, end-diastolic
velocity in the NWB position was significantly different
from that recorded in the HE position.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The pulsedwave
Doppler tracing of the equine lateral palmar digital
artery was modified considerably with changes in
posture. This suggests that the use of a precisely standardized
posture for horses is required to obtain repeatable
data. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1211–1215)
A young adult 12-kg (26.4-lb) female mixed-breed dog housed in an animal shelter was referred to the teaching hospital of the Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences of the University of Bologna because of severe nonambulatory tetraparesis and abnormal mentation. The dog was found wandering 2 months before; at that time, the dog had mild paraparesis that slowly progressed to tetraparesis and recumbency. In the 2 weeks preceding the referral examination, additional clinical signs included obtunded mental status and intention tremors. Prednisone (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h for 6 days) was administered to the dog without any
A 10-week-old male French Bulldog was referred for evaluation because of a 2-week history of recurrent episodes of signs of acute diffuse pain and mild depression and decreased appetite. The dog's vaccination protocol was incomplete. No previous trauma was reported. The history of the dog's littermates was unknown.
Clinical and Gross Findings
The general physical examination findings for the dog were unremarkable. A neurologic examination revealed a kyphotic posture, mild proprioceptive ataxia, and abnormal postural and proprioceptive reactions on all 4 limbs. Signs of severe pain were elicited by neck manipulation. Radiography of the cervical vertebral column revealed an
CASE DESCRIPTION 5 dogs were examined because of clinical signs of myelopathy, including signs of pain associated with the spinal region and rapidly progressive neurologic deficits.
CLINICAL FINDINGS In all dogs, results of MRI were consistent with spinal epidural empyema. Concurrent infectious processes were identified at adjacent or distant sites in all dogs, including diskospondylitis, prostatitis, dermatitis, paraspinal infection following a penetrating injury, urinary tract infection, and pyothorax. Bacteria were isolated from 3 dogs; Escherichia coli was isolated from blood, urine, and prostatic wash samples from 1 dog; a Pasteurella sp was isolated from a percutaneous aspirate from an adjacent infected wound in a second dog; and a Corynebacterium sp was isolated from a thoracic fluid sample from a third dog. For the remaining 2 dogs, results of bacterial culture were negative.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME All dogs showed clinical improvement within 2 weeks after initiation of antimicrobial treatment, and all had an excellent long-term outcome.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE In dogs, spinal epidural empyema has previously been regarded as a surgical emergency. Findings for dogs in the present report suggested that, as is the case for humans, selected dogs with spinal epidural empyema may be successfully managed with medical treatment alone.