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  • Author or Editor: Gregory Hall x
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To determine echocardiographic, electrocardiographic, and histologic abnormalities in Doberman Pinschers with occult cardiomyopathy that died suddenly and to compare findings with those of Doberman Pinschers with cardiomyopathy that died of congestive heart failure.


Retrospective study.


14 Doberman Pinschers with occult cardiomyopathy that died suddenly (group 1) and 40 Doberman Pinschers with cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure (group 2).


Serial echocardiography and continuous, ambulatory electrocardiographic (Holter) monitoring were performed. Hearts of dogs that died suddenly were examined histologically.


Group-2 dogs died at a significantly older age than did group-1 dogs. All dogs had echocardiographic abnormalities, but changes were more severe in group-2 than in group-1 dogs. Ventricular tachyarrhythmias were documented in all dogs. Group-1 dogs were more likely to have episodes of sustained ventricular tachycardia than were group-2 dogs. Multifocal interstitial fibrosis and replacement of muscle fibers with collagen and fat were consistently observed in hearts from dogs that died suddenly. Ten group-1 dogs had received antiarrhythmic treatment prior to death.

Clinical Implications

Occult cardiomyopathy can be identified by means of echocardiography and Holter monitoring in Doberman Pinschers. Doberman Pinschers with cardiomyopathy that had episodes of sustained (> 30 seconds) ventricular tachycardia were at risk of dying suddenly. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:505–511)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To develop robust reference intervals for hematologic and serum biochemical variables by use of data derived from free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and examine potential variation in distributions of clinicopathologic values related to sampling sites' geographic locations.

Animals—255 free-ranging bottlenose dolphins.

Procedures—Data from samples collected during multiple bottlenose dolphin capture-release projects conducted at 4 southeastern US coastal locations in 2000 through 2006 were combined to determine reference intervals for 52 clinicopathologic variables. A nonparametric bootstrap approach was applied to estimate 95th percentiles and associated 90% confidence intervals; the need for partitioning by length and sex classes was determined by testing for differences in estimated thresholds with a bootstrap method. When appropriate, quantile regression was used to determine continuous functions for 95th percentiles dependent on length. The proportion of out-of-range samples for all clinicopathologic measurements was examined for each geographic site, and multivariate ANOVA was applied to further explore variation in leukocyte subgroups.

Results—A need for partitioning by length and sex classes was indicated for many clinicopathologic variables. For each geographic site, few significant deviations from expected number of out-of-range samples were detected. Although mean leukocyte counts did not vary among sites, differences in the mean counts for leukocyte subgroups were identified.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although differences in the centrality of distributions for some variables were detected, the 95th percentiles estimated from the pooled data were robust and applicable across geographic sites. The derived reference intervals provide critical information for conducting bottlenose dolphin population health studies.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research