Objective—To compare fermentation characteristics
of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and other fiber substrates
that are commonly found in canine diets.
Sample Population—Fecal samples from 3 adult
Procedure—The ability of fiber substrates to be used
in microbial fermentation reactions was assessed by
use of an in vitro fermentation system. Dogs were fed
a commercially available food, and feces were collected
for use as the microbial inoculum. Substrates
used were beet pulp, cellulose, soy fiber, mannanoligosaccharides
(MOS), FOS, and 4 inulin products
(inulin 1, 2, 3, and 4). Each substrate was incubated
anaerobically with fecal inoculum and growth media
for 6, 12, and 24 hours, and production of short-chain
fatty acids (SCFA) was measured.
Results—Total production of SCFA was higher for fermentation
of the 4 inulin products and FOS, whereas
fermentation of beet pulp, MOS, and soy fiber resulted
in moderate concentrations of SCFA. Fermentation
of cellulose produced the lowest concentrations
of total SCFA without detection of butyrate or
lactate. Butyrate production was greatest for fermentation
of the 4 inulin products and FOS. Total lactate
production was greatest for FOS and inulin 4. As
expected, production of SCFA increased for all substrates
as fermentation time increased.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Canine fecal
microflora ferment FOS-containing substrates in a
similar manner, with little fermentation of cellulosebased
carbohydrates. Furthermore, results of an in
vitro fermentation system indicate that fiber type
affects the metabolic activity of microorganisms, thus
influencing the amount and nature of the end products
of fermentation. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:
Objective—To evaluate the esophageal passage of
capsules in clinically normal cats and determine the
incidence of prolonged transit or entrapment.
Animals—12 clinically normal adult cats.
Procedure—Esophageal transit of barium sulfatefilled
capsules was evaluated fluoroscopically. Each
cat was examined 3 times (36 examinations).
Esophageal transit times were classified as normal
(≤ 30 seconds) or prolonged (> 30 but ≤ 240 seconds).
Capsules were considered entrapped when transit
times were > 240 seconds.
Results—Transit times were normal in 10 of the 36
(27.8%) examinations, whereas times were prolonged
in 7 (19.4%) examinations. Capsules became
entrapped in the midcervical region of the esophagus
during 19 (52.8%) examinations. Following termination
of each examination, cats with entrapped capsules
were fed a small amount (0.5 to 1 ounce) of
food; this resulted in passage of the capsule to the
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The possibility
of medication-induced esophagitis should be considered
when orally administering ulcerogenic drugs
to cats. It is recommended that a small volume of
food be given following medications to ensure complete
esophageal clearance. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:
To evaluate the radiographic thickness of the dorsal hoof wall in normal draft horse feet.
33 adult draft horses with no history of laminitis, no clinically obvious lameness, and visibly unremarkable front feet were included.
This was a prospective, descriptive study of clinically normal draft horses’ front feet. Lateromedial radiographs were acquired of the front feet. A ratio of the dorsal hoof wall thickness to the length of the distal phalanx (DHWP3 ratio) was calculated.
The dorsal hoof wall thickness to length of the distal phalanx was calculated as 0.33 ± 0.03 (range of 0.28 to 0.39) in this population of draft horses.
With very few exceptions, the heterogeneous population of draft horses evaluated in this study had a DHWP3 ratio greater than previously published values in lighter breeds (< 0.30).
To develop and assess a novel ex vivo corneal culture technique involving an agarose-based dome scaffold (ABDS) for use as a model of in vivo corneal wound healing in dogs and rabbits.
Corneas from clinically normal dogs (paired corneas from 8 dogs and 8 single corneas) and rabbits (21 single corneas).
8 single dog corneas (DCs), 1 DC from each pair, and 10 rabbit corneas (RCs) were wounded with an excimer laser; 1 DC from each pair and 11 RCs remained unwounded. Corneas were cultured for 21 days on ABDSs (8 pairs of DCs and all RCs) or on flat-topped scaffolds (8 single DCs). The surface area of corneal fluorescein retention was measured every 6 (DCs) or 12 (RCs) hours until full corneal epithelialization was detected. Changes in corneal clarity were evaluated at 0, 7, 14, and 21 days.
Median time to full epithelialization for wounded dog and rabbit corneas was 48 and 60 hours, respectively; among wounded DCs, time to full epithelization did not differ by scaffold type. After 21 days of culture on ABDSs, all DCs and RCs that epithelialized developed a circular, diffuse, cloud-like pattern of optical haze, whereas DCs cultured on flat-topped scaffolds developed a focal, crater-like region of optical haze. All corneas on the ABDSs maintained convex curvature throughout the study.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Wounded ex vivo DCs and RCs cultured on ABDSs reliably epithelialized, formed optical haze (consistent with in vivo wound healing), and maintained convex curvature. This culture technique may be adaptable to other species.
Objective—To determine whether the reported drug-drug interaction between the flea medication spinosad and ivermectin is attributable to inhibition of P-glycoprotein by spinosad.
Animals—6 healthy adult dogs with the ABCB1 wildtype genotype.
Procedures—The study was conducted as a prospective, masked, randomized crossover design. Six dogs were allocated to 2 groups; each dog served as its own control animal. Dogs in one of the groups received spinosad at the manufacturer's recommended dose; the other group received no treatment. Forty-eight hours later, scintigraphic imaging of the head and abdomen were performed with the radiolabeled P-glycoprotein substrate methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (sestamibi) in both groups of dogs. After a washout period of 60 days, the dogs in each group received the alternate treatment, and scintigraphic imaging again was performed 48 hours later. Gallbladder-to-liver and brain-to-neck musculature ratios of technetium Tc 99m sestamibi were calculated for each dog and compared between treatments.
Results—No significant differences in gallbladder-to-liver or brain-to-neck musculature ratios were found between treatments.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results provided evidence that spinosad did not inhibit P-glycoprotein function 48 hours after spinosad was administered at the manufacturer's recommended dose. Further investigations will be necessary to elucidate the mechanism of the reported toxic interaction between spinosad and ivermectin.
Objective—To determine the incidence of bacteremia
in dairy cows with naturally occurring acute coliform
mastitis (ACM) with a wide range of disease severity.
Animals—144 dairy cows with ACM from 6 herds.
Procedure—Cows were examined at time of identification
of ACM (time 0) and classified as having mild,
moderate, or severe mastitis on the basis of rectal temperature,
hydration status, rumen contraction rate, and
attitude. Cows were reexamined at 24 or 48 hours.
Bacteriologic culturing of milk and blood (30 ml), CBC,
and serum biochemical analysis were performed at
each time point. Appropriate samples were obtained at
a single point from herdmates without mastitis (controls)
that were closely matched for lactation number
and days since parturition. Blood culture results were
compared among severity groups and controls by use
of χ2 tests, as was outcome of an ACM episode for
cows grouped by blood bacterial isolates.
Results—Bacteria were isolated from 52 blood samples
from 46 of 144 (32%) cows with ACM, which was significantly
more than control cows (11/156; 7.1%). Group-1
isolates (Escherichia coli, Pasteurella multocida,
Mannheimia haemolytica, Klebsiella pneumoniae,
Enterobacter agglomerans, and Salmonella enterica
serotype Typhimurium) were identified in 20 of 144 (14%)
cows with ACM and 0 of 156 control cows. Group-1 isolates
were identified in 4.3, 9.1, and 42% of cows classified
as having mild, moderate, and severe ACM, respectively.
Escherichia coli and K pneumoniae milk and blood
isolates obtained from the same cow were of the same
genotype. Bacillus spp were identified in 21 of 144 (15%)
cows with ACM, which was significantly more than control
cows (3/156; 1.9%). Thirty-five percent of cows with a
group-1 isolate died during the mastitis episode.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that bacteremia develops in a substantial proportion
of cows with ACM. Classification of severity
of disease is important for establishment of effective
treatment protocols; parenteral antimicrobial treatment
may be indicated in cows with ACM. (J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2001;219:976–981)
Objective—To determine clinical response and toxic
effects of cis-bis-neodecanoato-trans-R,R-1,2-
diaminocyclohexane platinum (II) (L-NDDP) administered
IV at escalating doses to cats with oral squamous
cell carcinoma (SCC).
Animals—18 cats with oral SCC.
Procedure—Cats that failed to respond to conventional
treatment or had nonresectable tumors were
included. Data included a CBC, serum biochemical
analyses, urinalysis, cytologic examination of a fineneedle
aspirate of enlarged lymph nodes, and thoracic
and oral radiographs for clinical staging. A
starting dose (75 to 100 mg/m2 of L-NDDP) was
administered IV. At 21-day intervals, subsequent
doses increased by the rate of 5 or 10 mg/m2.
Response was evaluated every 21 days by tumor
measurement and thoracic radiography. Quality of
life was assessed by owners, using a performance
Results—On average, cats received 2 treatments.
Toxicoses included an intermittent, acute anaphylactoid-
parasympathomimetic reaction, lethargy or
sedation (≤ 24 hours), inappetence or signs of
depression (≤ 72 hours), mild to moderate increase
in hepatic enzyme activity, and melena. Pulmonary,
renal, or hematopoietic abnormalities were not evident.
Performance status surveys indicated normal
behavior and grooming or decreased activity and
self-care (19/20 assessments), ate well with or
without assistance (15/20), and did not lose weight
(15/20). Median survival time was 59.8 days (mean,
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—L-NDDP was
ineffective for treatment of cats with oral SCC. None
of the cats had a complete or partial remission.
Acute toxicoses and poor therapeutic response limit
therapeutic usefulness of L-NDDP in cats, unless
dosage, frequency, and administration procedures
can be improved. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:
Case Description—A 19-year-old Thoroughbred mare was evaluated at 265 days of gestation with a markedly distended abdomen and edema of the ventral portion of the abdomen.
Clinical Findings—The uterus was distended over the pelvic rim, making transrectal palpation of the fetus impossible. Transabdominal ultrasonography revealed excessive amounts of fetal fluid. Results of analysis of fluid obtained via amnio- and allantocentesis confirmed that the amniotic cavity was large.
Treatment and Outcome—The mare was monitored for signs of weakness of the prepubic tendon and abdominal wall. The fetus and placenta were monitored for signs of stress and pending abortion. Flunixin meglumine and altrenogest were administered to the mare. Parturition was attended and occurred at 321 days' gestation. Postpartum complications in the mare included hypovolemic shock and cardiac arrhythmias. Both conditions were treated, and the mare recovered. The foal was considered small, had bilateral angular limb deformities, and was unable to nurse. The foal was given plasma for failure of passive transfer of immunity. Ten months later, the foal underwent procedures to correct limb deformities.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hydrops conditions are rare in horses, with hydrops allantois occurring more frequently than hydrops amnion; reportedly result in fetal or neonatal death; and may result in death of or injury to the mare. Close monitoring of maternal and fetal health in combination with supportive treatment of the mare can result in the safe progression of a hydrops pregnancy and the birth of a live foal.
Objective—To estimate prevalence of and identify
risk factors for fecal Salmonella shedding among hospitalized
horses with signs of gastrointestinal tract
Animals—465 hospitalized horses with gastrointestinal
Procedure—Horses were classified as positive or
negative for fecal Salmonella shedding during hospitalization
by means of standard aerobic bacteriologic
methods. The relationship between investigated
exposure factors and fecal Salmonella shedding was
examined by means of logistic regression.
Results—The overall prevalence of fecal Salmonella
shedding was 13%. Salmonella serotype Newport
was the most commonly isolated serotype (12/60
[20%]), followed by Anatum (8/60 [13%]), Java (13%),
and Saint-paul (13%). Foals with gastrointestinal tract
disease were 3.27 times as likely to be shedding
Salmonella organisms as were adult horses with gastrointestinal
tract disease. Adult horses that had been
treated with antimicrobial drugs prior to hospitalization
were 3.09 times as likely to be shedding
Salmonella organisms as were adult horses that had
not been treated with antimicrobial drugs prior to hospitalization.
Adult horses that underwent abdominal
surgery were 2.09 times as likely to be shedding
Salmonella organisms as were adult horses that did
not undergo abdominal surgery.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that a history of exposure to antimicrobial drugs
prior to hospitalization and abdominal surgery during
hospitalization were associated with Salmonella
shedding in adult horses with gastrointestinal tract
disease. Foals with gastrointestinal tract disease
were more likely to shed Salmonella organisms than
were adult horses with gastrointestinal tract disease.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:275–281)