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  • Author or Editor: Gregg M. Griffenhagen x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the efficacy and duration of action for perineural analgesia with liposomal bupivacaine (LB) versus bupivacaine hydrochloride (BHCl) in a sole-pressure induced model of forelimb lameness in horses.

ANIMALS

6 healthy adult research horses.

PROCEDURES

In 1 randomly assigned forelimb, grade 3/5 lameness was induced by use of a sole-pressure lameness model. Objective lameness (vector sum [VS]) was determined with an inertial sensor system at 0, 1, 6, and 24 hours after lameness induction to evaluate the model. Mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNTs) and objective lameness (VS and force platform kinetics) were recorded prior to and at 1, 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours after perineural anesthesia of the palmar nerves at the level of the proximal sesamoid bones with LB or BHCl in random order, with a 1-week washout period between crossover treatments. Data analysis was performed with mixed-model ANOVA.

RESULTS

When evaluating the lameness model, there was a decrease in lameness at 24 hours in at least 1 limb of each horse (7/12 limbs); thus, screw length was increased by 1 to 2 mm at each 24-hour interval to maintain lameness. Compared with results at baseline, horses treated with BHCl had significant improvements in median MNT and VS identified at only 1 hour after injection, whereas treatment with LB yielded significantly improved median MNT, VS score, and peak vertical force for up to 24 hours.

DISCUSSION

In this experimental model of forelimb lameness, LB provided longer analgesia when compared with BHCl and should be further investigated for treatment of pain in horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the agreement between cardiac output (CO) estimated via evaluation of the arterial pressure waveform by a novel monitoring system (Edwards Acumen IQ sensor and HemoSphere Advanced Monitor Platform [HS-IQ]; Edwards LifeSciences) and measured by thermodilution (TD) in anesthetized, normovolemic, and hypovolemic dogs. To assess the agreement between the HS-IQ CO measurements in the radial artery and dorsal metatarsal artery.

ANIMALS

8 purpose-bred Beagles.

METHODS

Dogs were placed under general anesthesia. CO was measured via TD and via the HS-IQ at radial and dorsal metatarsal arterial catheters. CO measurements were obtained at 4 time points including normovolemic and multiple hypovolemic states. Paired measurements of CO were evaluated via the method of Bland and Altman with acceptable limits of agreement (LOA) defined as < 30%.

RESULTS

A total of 24 (dorsal metatarsal) and 21 (radial) paired measurements were collected in 8 dogs. The overall bias (CI) for comparison of TD to radial arterial HS-IQ CO measurements was −0.09 L/min. LOA and proportional LOA were −2.66 to 2.49 L/min and −140.72% to 104.94%. The overall bias (CI) for comparison of TD to dorsal metatarsal arterial HS-IQ CO measurements was −0.26 L/min. LOA and proportional LOA were −2.76 to 2.24 L/min and −135.96% to 93.25%. The overall proportional error for radial arterial was −17.9% and for dorsal metatarsal was −21.4%.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

CO measurements with the HS-IQ were easy to obtain but did not produce results within a clinically acceptable range for either measurement site, with a very wide LOA. The CO estimations from the HS-IQ are not appropriate for clinical use at this time.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe a minimally invasive 3-portal laparoscopic approach for elective ovariohysterectomy and the outcome of that procedure in a population of goats.

DESIGN Descriptive clinical study.

ANIMALS 16 healthy client-owned goats.

PROCEDURES Food but not water was withheld from all goats for 24 hours before the procedure. Goats were anesthetized and positioned in dorsal recumbency. Three laparoscopic portals were created in the caudoventral portion of the abdomen, and the abdomen was insufflated to a maximum pressure of 10 mm Hg. A blunt-tip vessel sealer and divider device was used to transect the left and right mesovarium and mesometrium and uterus, and the resected tissue was removed from the abdomen. After hemostasis was verified, the portals were closed in a routine manner and anesthesia was discontinued. Goats were discharged from the hospital 24 hours after the procedure, and owners were contacted by telephone or email to obtain short- and long-term follow-up information by use of standardized questions.

RESULTS All procedures were performed by a surgeon and assistant surgeon. The procedure was not complex and was easily learned. No intraoperative complications were reported, and only 1 goat required rescue analgesia post-operatively. No other postoperative complications were recorded. Median surgery time was 43 minutes (range, 20 to 65 minutes). All owners were satisfied with the outcome of the procedure, and several perceived that the procedure improved goat behavior.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy was a viable alternative for elective sterilization of female goats.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Volatile anesthetic agents are potent greenhouse gases with warming potential hundreds to thousands of times greater than CO2. As health systems, both human and veterinary, seek to reduce their environmental impacts, responsible anesthetic stewardship is a topic of great interest. Through an online survey, we explored the levels of awareness, beliefs, interest, needs, and current actions of veterinary anesthesia professionals around the climate impacts of anesthetic care. We found that even within a respondent group with specialized training and experience, there were significant knowledge gaps about anesthesia’s environmental impacts. We also found there is much interest in learning more about climate-friendly anesthesia and broader sustainability initiatives for the veterinary profession. Fortunately, there already exist many ways for the profession to reduce our environmental impact while still providing excellent patient care. In this article, we explore 5 broad categories of action: (1) reducing the overall quantity of anesthetic agent used; (2) choosing lower-impact anesthetics; (3) considering the fate of the anesthetic end product; (4) expanding learning through formal education, experience, and research; and (5) reaching beyond anesthesia to implement a range of sustainability initiatives at veterinary workplaces. Together, we have an opportunity to create a healthier future for our world, our patients, and each other.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Biomedical waste is a well-recognized environmental problem, yet less is known about the waste generated in the delivery of veterinary care compared to human medicine. The objective of this project was to develop and pilot a waste audit protocol for veterinary medicine that could inform waste management at a US university veterinary teaching hospital and the broader veterinary community. We conducted a multi-day review of the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital’s small animal surgery and anesthesia units to measure the types and amounts of waste generated during routine surgeries. Metrics included total weight, number of bags, and individual counts for specific items of concern and items with sustainable alternatives. We calculated frequencies and percentages of waste by waste audit material category and noted any erroneous materials sorted. Despite waste being a prioritized sustainability issue in veterinary medicine, this work highlighted opportunities for better education on managing and optimizing existing resources through behavior modification. This article explores ways the 5Rs (Rethink, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, Research) could be better operationalized in veterinary hospitals.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association