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Objective—To determine treatment outcome on the basis of pathological changes identified on MRI and lameness duration in horses with navicular syndrome that underwent injection of corticosteroid and hyaluronan into the navicular bursa.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—101 horses with navicular syndrome.

Procedures—Medical records of horses with signs of navicular syndrome evaluated between January 2000 and December 2008 were reviewed. Data on signalment, use of the horse, history, affected limbs, duration of lameness, findings on lameness examination, radiographic findings, MRI findings, treatment, and outcome were collected from the medical records. Follow-up information was obtained a minimum of 10 months after navicular bursa injection.

Results—Following navicular bursa injection, 76 of 101 (75%) horses returned to their intended use for a mean of 9.66 months, and 35 (35%) were sound at follow-up. Horses that had been lame for < 6 months before treatment were significantly more likely to return to their intended use, have a longer positive response to treatment, and be sound at follow-up, compared with horses that had a longer lameness history. Horses with primary deep digital flexor (DDF) tendonitis responded best to navicular bursa injection with rest and rehabilitation, followed by horses with navicular bursitis and horses with DDF tendonitis and adhesions to the collateral sesamoidean ligament of the distal sesamoid (navicular) bone. Horses with scar tissue in the proximal portion of the navicular bursa, adhesions from the navicular bone to the DDF tendon, or multiple abnormalities did not respond as well to treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Response to navicular bursa injection with corticosteroid and hyaluronan in horses with navicular syndrome was dependent on the disease process detected on MRI and duration of lameness.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To describe the location and severity of deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) lesions diagnosed by means of high-field-strength MRI in horses and to identify variables associated with return to activity following medical treatment.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—118 horses.

Procedures—Medical records of horses with DDFT injury diagnosed with MRI over a 10-year period (2000–2010) and treated medically (intrasynovial administration of corticosteroids and sodium hyaluronan, rest and rehabilitation, or both) were reviewed. History, signalment, use, results of lameness examination and diagnostic local anesthesia, MRI findings, and treatment details were recorded. Outcome was obtained by telephone interview or follow-up examination. Horses were grouped by predictor variables and analyzed with logistic regression to identify significant effects.

Results—Overall, of 97 horses available for follow-up (median time to follow-up, 5 years; range, 1 to 12 years), 59 (61%) returned to activity for a mean duration of 22.6 months (median, 18 months; range, 3 to 72 months), with 25 (26%) still sound at follow-up. Of horses with mild, moderate, and severe injury, 21 of 29 (72%), 20 of 36 (56%), and 18 of 32 (56%), respectively, returned to use. Horses treated with intrasynovial corticosteroid injection and 6 months of rest and rehabilitation returned to use for a significantly longer duration than did horses treated without rest. Western performance horses returned to use for a significantly longer duration than did English performance horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the present study suggested that outcome for horses with DDFT injuries treated medically depended on injury severity, presence of concurrent injury to other structures in the foot, type of activity, and owner compliance with specific treatment recommendations. Although some horses successfully returned to prior activity, additional treatment options are needed to improve outcome in horses with severe injuries and to improve long-term prognosis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To compare predictive values, extent of agreement, and gamithromycin susceptibility between bacterial culture results of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples obtained from calves with bovine respiratory disease (BRD).

ANIMALS 28 beef calves with clinical BRD.

PROCEDURES Pooled bilateral NPS samples and BALF samples were obtained for bacterial culture from calves immediately before and at various times during the 5 days after gamithromycin (6 mg/kg, SC, once) administration. For each culture-positive sample, up to 12 Mannheimia haemolytica, 6 Pasteurella multocida, and 6 Histophilus somni colonies underwent gamithromycin susceptibility testing. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on all M haemolytica isolates. For paired NPS and BALF samples collected 5 days after gamithromycin administration, the positive and negative predictive values for culture results of NPS samples relative to those of BALF samples and the extent of agreement between the sampling methods were determined.

RESULTS Positive and negative predictive values of NPS samples were 67% and 100% for M haemolytica, 75% and 100% for P multocida, and 100% and 96% for H somni. Extent of agreement between results for NPS and BALF samples was substantial for M haemolytica (κ, 0.71) and H somni (κ, 0.78) and almost perfect for P multocida (κ, 0.81). Gamithromycin susceptibility varied within the same sample and between paired NPS and BALF samples.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated culture results of NPS and BALF samples from calves with BRD should be interpreted cautiously considering disease prevalence within the population, sample collection relative to antimicrobial administration, and limitations of diagnostic testing methods.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research