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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate antinociceptive efficacy and safety of SC buprenorphine hydrochloride administration in African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris).

ANIMALS

12 healthy adult hedgehogs (7 males and 5 females).

PROCEDURES

3 crossover experimental trials were performed. In the first trial, all 12 hedgehogs were given single SC injections of buprenorphine (0.01 mg/kg [0.0045 mg/lb]), buprenorphine (0.03 mg/kg [0.014 mg/lb]), or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.16 mL/kg [0.073 mL/lb]), and sedation and hind limb thermal withdrawal latency were measured. In the second trial, 6 hedgehogs were given single SC injections of buprenorphine (0.05 mg/kg [0.023 mg/lb]) or saline solution (0.16 mL/kg), and sedation and withdrawal latency were evaluated. In the third trial, 10 hedgehogs were given 3 doses of buprenorphine (0.05 mg/kg, SC, q 24 h) or saline solution (0.16 mL/kg, SC, q 24 h), and food intake and body weight were measured for 6 days.

RESULTS

For all 3 experimental trials, the sedation score was 0 for all hedgehogs at all assessment times. A single 0.01-mg/kg dose of buprenorphine significantly increased thermal withdrawal latency for 36 hours, and single 0.03- and 0.05-mg/kg doses significantly increased latencies for 48 hours. Increased locomotor activity was noted in a few hedgehogs after administration of the 0.03- and 0.05-mg/kg doses. Daily administration of buprenorphine did not have significant effects on food intake or body weight.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

SC administration of buprenorphine at single doses of 0.01, 0.03, and 0.05 mg/kg provided safe, long-lasting antinociception in African pygmy hedgehogs without apparent sedative effects.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate glucose absorption rates as an indirect measure of fluid absorption after SC or intracoelomic (ICe) administration of 2.5% dextrose solution to experimentally dehydrated inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

ANIMALS

9 adult bearded dragons.

PROCEDURES

In a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover design study, bearded dragons were experimentally dehydrated with a previously described protocol and then received 2.5% dextrose solution (a 1:1 mixture of 5% dextrose in isotonic multiple electrolytes solution; 20 mL/kg), SC or ICe, or a control treatment (the same electrolytes solution without added glucose; 20 mL/kg). Blood glucose (BG) concentrations were measured at predetermined times up to 24 hours after fluid administration. There was a ≥ 14-day washout period between treatments. Mean changes in BG concentration from baseline were compared among treatments.

RESULTS

Administration of 2.5% dextrose solution by either route increased BG concentration with a significantly greater change in values within 5 minutes, compared with control treatment results. The mean change in BG concentration after ICe administration was significantly greater than that after SC administration 15 and 30 minutes after injection, with mean differences of −50 and −36 mg/dL, respectively, for the SC treatment. Within 1 hour after fluid administration, there was no significant difference in BG values between the 2 dextrose administration routes.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings supported that fluid therapy by SC administration, which carries a lower risk of iatrogenic complications, can provide results similar to those achieved with ICe administration.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate gastrointestinal transit times in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) by use of contrast fluoroscopic imaging and investigate the effect of falconry hooding in these hawks on gastrointestinal transit time.

DESIGN Prospective, randomized, blinded, complete crossover study.

ANIMALS 9 healthy red-tailed hawks.

PROCEDURES Hawks were gavage-fed a 30% weight-by-volume barium suspension (25 mL/kg [11.3 mL/lb]) into the crop. Fluoroscopic images were obtained at multiple time points after barium administration. Time to filling and emptying of various gastrointestinal tract organs and overall transit time were measured. The effect of hooding (hooded vs nonhooded) on these variables was assessed in a randomized complete crossover design.

RESULTS In nonhooded birds, overall gastrointestinal transit time ranged from 30 to 180 minutes (mean ± SD, 100 ± 52 min). Time to complete crop emptying ranged from 30 to 180 minutes (83 ± 49 min). Contrast medium was present in the ventriculus in all birds within 5 minutes of administration and in the small intestines within 5 to 15 minutes (median, 5 min). Hooding of red-tailed hawks resulted in a significant delay of complete crop emptying (no hood, 83 ± 49 minutes; hood, 133 ± 48 minutes), but no significant effects of hooding were found on other measured variables.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE These results indicated that overall gastrointestinal transit times are faster in red-tailed hawks than has been reported for psittacines and that the use of a falconry hood in red-tailed hawks may result in delayed crop emptying. Hooding did not exert significant effects on overall gastrointestinal transit time in this raptorial species.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate SC administration of 2 sedation protocols, ketamine-midazolam (KM) and alfaxalone-midazolam (AM), in African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris).

ANIMALS

9 healthy adult hedgehogs (5 males, 4 females).

PROCEDURES

A randomized, blinded, complete crossover study was performed. Sedation was induced by SC administration of either ketamine (30 mg/kg [14 mg/lb]) with midazolam (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb]) or alfaxalone (3 mg/kg [1.4 mg/lb]) with midazolam (1 mg/kg), including a 2-week washout period between treatments. Flumazenil (0.05 mg/kg [0.02 mg/lb], SC) was administered 45 minutes after administration of either protocol to reverse the effects of midazolam. Physiologic variables, reflexes, and behaviors were monitored. Food intake and body weight were measured before and after sedation.

RESULTS

Deep sedation characterized by complete loss of the righting reflex, decreased jaw tone, decreased pelvic limb withdrawal reflex, and preservation of the palpebral reflex was produced in 7 of 9 hedgehogs after KM administration and all 9 hedgehogs after AM administration. Mean ± SD time to loss of righting reflex was 6.4 ± 2.4 minutes after KM administration and 10 ± 4.0 minutes after AM administration. Following flumazenil administration, no significant difference was found in recovery time between sedation with KM (18.8 ± 12.7 minutes) and AM (14.4 ± 7.8 minutes). No significant differences were found in respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, or body temperature between protocols, whereas heart rate was higher for sedation with KM. Both sedation protocols resulted in a transient reduction in food intake.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Subcutaneous administration of KM and AM provided deep sedation that might be useful to facilitate routine, noninvasive procedures in hedgehogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe a modified approach to neurologic examination of African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris).

ANIMALS

12 adult hedgehogs (7 males and 5 females).

PROCEDURES

Aspects of the standard neurologic examination of dogs and cats were evaluated for use with awake hedgehogs, and modified approaches to evaluating their normal behavior and mentation, select cranial nerves and refexes, and gait were then identified. Behavioral analysis and gait analysis were performed by using video recordings of hedgehogs in a novel environment. Performability and repeatability of all feasible aspects of the neurologic examination were assessed.

RESULTS

Most aspects of the standard neurologic examination could be successfully performed, with repeatable results. However, certain aspects, especially those evaluating the pelvic limbs, were more difficult to perform successfully or were less repeatable. All hedgehogs lacked a menace response but displayed a contraction of the frontodorsalis muscle. Facial sensation testing was unreliable.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The entire standard neurologic examination could not be performed in hedgehogs. However, many aspects could be performed, and together they provided baseline data for neurologic examination of this species.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare sedation in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) after intranasal administration of midazolam and midazolam-butorphanol.

ANIMALS 9 healthy adult cockatiels.

PROCEDURES A randomized, controlled, blinded, complete crossover study was conducted. Birds were assigned to 3 treatment groups. Midazolam (3 mg/kg), midazolam-butorphanol (3 mg/kg for each drug), or sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment) was administered intranasally. Sedation quality was assessed at 3 time points by use of eye and body position; response to visual, auditory, and tactile stimulation; and response during manual restraint on the basis of eye position and struggling intensity. To evaluate attenuation of the manual restraint–induced stress response, heart rate, respiratory rate, and cloacal temperature were measured over a 15-minute period. Treatments were repeated after a minimum washout period of 7 days.

RESULTS Median onset of first sedation effects was 85 seconds (range, 60 to 120 seconds) for midazolam and 90 seconds (range, 45 to 180 seconds) for midazolam-butorphanol. Midazolam-butorphanol resulted in significantly less vigorous struggling during restraint than did midazolam or the control treatment. Heart rate did not differ significantly among treatments. The stress-induced increase in respiratory rate was significantly attenuated by midazolam and midazolam-butorphanol, whereas the increase in cloacal temperature was not attenuated by midazolam or midazolam-butorphanol.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Intranasal administration of midazolam and midazolam-butorphanol resulted in a rapid onset of sedation in cockatiels. Midazolam-butorphanol resulted in deeper sedation in both restrained and unrestrained birds than did midazolam alone. Midazolam and midazolam-butorphanol both provided safe and effective sedation in cockatiels.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate urine variables in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera).

DESIGN Evaluation study.

SAMPLE Urine samples from 41 chinchillas.

PROCEDURES Voided urine samples were collected from clinically normal chinchillas that were exhibited during a breeder exposition. Urinalysis was performed within 1 hour after collection. Urine specific gravity (USG) was measured before and after centrifugation with a handheld veterinary refractometer. Urine dipstick analysis and microscopic sedimentation examination were performed on all samples. Additionally, a urine sulfosalicylic acid (SSA) precipitation test and quantitative protein analysis were performed on samples with sufficient volume.

RESULTS 17 of 41 (41%) samples had a USG ≥ 1.050, and USG ranged from 1.014 to > 1.060. The USG before centrifugation did not differ significantly from that after centrifugation. Protein was detected in all urine samples on dipstick analysis. The SSA precipitation test yielded negative results for all samples tested. Results of the quantitative protein analyses were not correlated with the results of the dipstick analyses or SSA tests. The recorded pH for all samples was 8.5, which was the upper limit of detection for the reagent strip. Glucose and ketones were detected in 5 and 6 samples, respectively. Crystals were observed in 28 of 41 (68%) samples; 27 of those samples contained amorphous crystals.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Urinalysis results for clinically normal chinchillas were provided. For chinchilla urine samples, measurement of USG by refractometry prior to centrifugation is acceptable and protein concentration should be determined by quantitative protein analysis rather than dipstick analysis or the SSA test.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the sedative effects of a combination of dexmedetomidine and ketamine differed when it was administered IM in a hind limb versus a forelimb of leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius).

DESIGN Randomized crossover study.

ANIMALS 9 healthy adult leopard geckos.

PROCEDURES Each gecko received a combination of dexmedetomidine (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb]) and ketamine (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb]; DK), IM, in a forelimb and hind limb in a randomized order and with a 7-day interval between treatments. All geckos received atipamezole (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], SC) 45 minutes after DK administration. Palpebral and righting reflexes, jaw tone, and superficial pain and escape responses were each assessed on a 3-point scale, and the scores for those variables were summed to calculate a sedation score. Those variables and heart and respiratory rates were evaluated at predetermined times before and for 1 hour after DK administration.

RESULTS For the forelimb treatment, mean sedation score was higher and mean heart rate was lower than the corresponding values for the hind limb treatment at most time points after DK administration. The righting reflex remained intact for all 9 geckos following the hind limb treatment but became absent in 7 geckos following the forelimb treatment.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that the extent of DK-induced sedation was greater when the combination was injected IM in a forelimb versus a hind limb of leopard geckos, likely owing to a hepatic first-pass effect following hind limb injection. In reptiles, IM hind limb administration of drugs that undergo hepatic metabolism and excretion is not recommended.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of SC methadone in four-toed hedgehogs.

ANIMALS

9 to 12 healthy adult four-toed hedgehogs (7 to 9 males and 3 females).

METHODS

Hedgehogs underwent 3 randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, complete crossover studies. Hind limb withdrawal latencies in response to an acute thermal noxious stimulus were measured to evaluate the antinociceptive efficacy of methadone. Single doses of SC methadone were evaluated at 0.5 and 1 mg/kg for dose-dependent effects. Additionally, methadone (1.5 mg/kg) was administered at different concentrations to assess the effect of injection volume on antinociceptive efficacy. Finally, the safety of multiple doses of methadone (1.5 mg/kg, SC, q 2 h, for 3 doses) was also evaluated. In addition to monitoring behavior during latency measurements, animals were assessed for overt sedation. Food intake, body weight, and running wheel activity were assessed daily for 6 days following methadone administration to evaluate for adverse effects.

RESULTS

Methadone at 1 and 1.5 mg/kg provided antinociception lasting < 2 hours, and injection volume had no significant effect on efficacy. Methadone at 0.5 mg/kg did not induce antinociception. Methadone produced transient abnormal behaviors in all hedgehogs, with more animals affected at the 1.5-mg/kg dose. Behaviors included periods of standing motionless, vocalization, chewing motions, and paw raising. Single- or multiple-dose administration of methadone had no significant effect on total food intake, body weight, or running wheel activity.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The results of this study provide additional information on providing analgesia to hedgehogs. Subcutaneous methadone (1 to 1.5 mg/kg) can be used for short-term antinociception in hedgehogs.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hydromorphone administered SC in four-toed hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris).

ANIMALS

12 healthy adult hedgehogs.

METHODS

Hedgehogs underwent 2 randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, complete crossover studies. Hind limb withdrawal latencies in response to an acute thermal noxious stimulus were measured to evaluate the antinociceptive efficacy of hydromorphone. Baseline latencies were obtained prior to injection and collected again at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours following injection. Based on pilot studies, single doses of SC hydromorphone at 0.15 and 0.3 mg/kg were evaluated for efficacy in crossover trials. Safety of single (0.15 and 0.3 mg/kg) and multiple doses of hydromorphone (0.3 mg/kg, SC, q 4 h, for 3 doses) was also assessed. In addition to monitoring behavior during latency measurements, animals were evaluated for overt sedation and daily changes in food intake, body weight, and running wheel activity for 6 days after injection to evaluate for adverse effects.

RESULTS

Hydromorphone at 0.15 mg/kg provided antinociception lasting < 4 hours, and 0.3 mg/kg provided antinociception lasting < 6 hours. Hydromorphone produced transient abnormal behaviors at both doses, including vocalization, chewing motions of the jaw, and paw raising. There were no statistically significant differences in body weight or running wheel activity between treatments for single or multiple doses of hydromorphone. Three doses of 0.3 mg/kg hydromorphone (q 4 h) produced a statistically significant decrease (median, –9.7%; range, –64% to 10%) in 6-day total food intake.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Subcutaneous hydromorphone (0.15 to 0.3 mg/kg) can be used for short-term antinociception with transient adverse effects in hedgehogs.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association