Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 3 of 3 items for

  • Author or Editor: Grant H. Turnwald x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate a method using Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to experimentally induce dual infection of the urinary bladder in dogs.

Animals—6 healthy mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized, and cystitis was induced by infusing a solution of salicylic acid in ethanol into the bladder, followed by an inoculum containing field isolates of P mirabilis and P aeruginosa. Dogs were examined daily for 21 days after induction of cystitis. On day 21, dogs were euthanatized, and urinary bladder, renal pelvis, and prostate specimens were submitted for bacterial culture.

Results—After induction of cystitis, all dogs had evidence of thickening of the bladder wall, dysuria, tenesmus, and hematuria. Urinalysis revealed proteinuria, hematuria, and pyuria. All urine samples obtained on day 21 yielded growth of P mirabilis, but P aeruginosa was not cultured from any of these samples. Proteus mirabilis was isolated from bladder, renal pelvis, or prostate specimens from 4 dogs; P aeruginosa was not isolated from any of the tissue specimens.

Conclusion—Results suggest that the method used in the present study fails to induce dual infection of the urinary bladder with P mirabilis and P aeruginosa. The inability to establish a persistent dual infection with this method may have been a result of insufficient pathogenicity of the Pseudomonas isolate or an inadequacy of the experimental design. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1484–1486)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


To evaluate renal function and obtain reference values for measurements of urinary excretion of various substances, quantitative urinalysis was performed in healthy, growing kittens from 4 to 30 weeks after birth. Endogenous creatinine clearance, 24-hour urine protein excretion, and urine protein-to-creatinine ratio were determined. Additionally, fractional excretion to creatinine clearance was calculated for calcium, inorganic phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and chloride. Mean ± SD endogenous creatinine clearance values (range, 3.80 ± 0.48 to 4.74 ± 0.61 ml/min/kg) were significantly (P < 0.0001) higher in kittens 9 to 19 weeks old, compared with younger (range, 1.39 ± 0.85 to 3.59 ± 0.86 ml/min/kg) and older kittens (range, 2.69 ± 0.40 to 3.46 ± 0.37 ml/min/kg). Mean values for all kittens for 24-hour urine protein excretion (range, 2.54 ± 1.81 mg/kg at 4 weeks to 11.39 ± 7.61 mg/kg at 14 weeks) and for urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (range, 0.14 ± 0.03 to 0.34 ± 0.18) varied from week to week of age. The urine protein-to-creatinine ratio in kittens > 9 weeks old correlated well (R2 = 0.861) with 24-hour urine protein excretion. Urinary fractional excretion of calcium, inorganic phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and chloride in kittens varied among age groups, being significantly (P < 0.01) different for potassium and calcium in young kittens (4 to 6 weeks) and older kittens (≥ 7 weeks).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research