Objective—To determine whether antemortem core needle biopsy and fine-needle aspiration of enlarged peripheral lymph nodes could be used to distinguish between inflammation and lymphosarcoma in cattle.
Animals—25 cattle with enlarged peripheral lymph nodes.
Procedures—Antemortem biopsies of the selected lymph nodes were performed with an 18-gauge, 12-cm core needle biopsy instrument. Fine-needle aspirates were performed with a 20-gauge, 4-cm needle. Specimens were analyzed by pathologists who were unaware of clinical findings and final necropsy findings, and specimens were categorized as reactive, neoplastic, or nondiagnostic for comparison with necropsy results.
Results—Sensitivity and specificity of core needle biopsy ranged from 38% to 67% and from 80% to 25%, respectively. Sensitivity of fine-needle aspiration ranged from 41% to 53%, and specificity was 100%. Predictive values for positive test results ranged from 77% to 89% for core needle biopsy and were 100% for fine-needle aspiration. Predictive values for negative test results were low for both core needle biopsy and fine-needle aspiration.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that core needle biopsy and fineneedle aspiration can aid in the antemortem diagnosis of bovine enzootic lymphosarcoma. Results of fine-needle aspiration of enlarged peripheral lymph nodes were more specific and more predictive for a positive test result than were results of core needle biopsy.
OBJECTIVE To determine whether prophylactic administration of valacyclovir hydrochloride versus initiation of treatment at the onset of fever would differentially protect horses from viral replication and clinical disease attributable to equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1) infection.
ANIMALS 18 aged mares.
PROCEDURES Horses were randomly assigned to receive an oral placebo (control), treatment at detection of fever, or prophylactic treatment (initiated 1 day prior to viral challenge) and then inoculated intranasally with a neuropathogenic strain of EHV-1. Placebo or valacyclovir was administered orally for 7 or 14 days after EHV-1 inoculation or detection of fever (3 horses/group). Effects of treatment on viral replication and clinical disease were evaluated. Plasma acyclovir concentrations and viremia were assessed to determine inhibitory concentrations of valacyclovir.
RESULTS Valacyclovir administration decreased shedding of virus and viremia, compared with findings for control horses. Rectal temperatures and clinical disease scores in horses that received valacyclovir prophylactically for 2 weeks were lower than those in control horses. The severity of but not the risk for ataxia was decreased by valacyclovir administration. Viremia was decreased when steady-state trough plasma acyclovir concentrations were > 0.8 μg/mL, supporting the time-dependent activity of acyclovir.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Valacyclovir treatment significantly decreased viral replication and signs of disease in EHV-1–infected horses; effects were greatest when treatment was initiated before viral inoculation, but treatment was also effective when initiated as late as 2 days after inoculation. During an outbreak of equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy, antiviral treatment may be initiated in horses at various stages of infection, including horses that have not yet developed signs of viral disease.