Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 3 of 3 items for

  • Author or Editor: Gordon J. Benson x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To determine the electrodiagnostic and histologic response of short-term increases of intraocular pressure (IOP) on transient pattern electroretinograms (PERG) and flash electroretinograms (FERG) in the eyes of dogs.

Animals—8 healthy mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure—Transient PERG and FERG waveforms were recorded from dogs (while anesthetized) as IOP was increased from baseline (7 to 19 mm Hg) to 90 mm Hg. One hundred mean PERG responses and a single FERG response were recorded at each step during 3 recording sessions. Globes of each dog were enucleated after euthanasia on posttreatment day 7 and evaluated by a pathologist.

Results—Increases in spatial frequency resulted in decreased amplitudes of N2 (second negative PERG peak). Increases in IOP resulted in decreases in all 3 PERG waveforms and the FERG waveform. All values began to return to baseline after short-term increases in IOP on day 0, and waveforms were not significantly different on posttreatment days 3 and 7.

Conclusions—Data suggest that short-term increases in IOP affect PERG and FERG waveforms, and PERG waveforms are more sensitive to increases in IOP. Differences were not detected between treated and control eyes on histologic examination. Further studies are necessary to determine at what IOP permanent damage to ganglion and photoreceptor cells will develop and whether PERG is a reliable clinical diagnostic technique for use in dogs to reveal retinal damage that is secondary to increased IOP prior to changes in waveforms generated by FERG in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1087–1091)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To determine the most repeatable method for evaluating right ventricular relaxation rate in horses and to determine and compare effects of isoflurane or halothane with and without the added influence of intravenously administered calcium gluconate on right ventricular relaxation rates in horses.

Animals

6 Thoroughbred horses from 2 to 4 years old.

Procedure

6 models (2 for monoexponential decay with zero asymptote, 3 for monoexponential decay with variable asymptote, and 1 for biexponential decay) for determining right ventricular relaxation rate were assessed in conscious and anesthetized horses. The 2 methods yielding the most repeatable results then were used to determine right ventricular relaxation rates in horses anesthetized with isoflurane or halothane before, during, and after IV administration of calcium gluconate. Right ventricular pressure was measured, using a catheter-tip high-fidelity pressure transducer, and results were digitized at 500 Hz from minimum rate of change in ventricular pressure.

Results

2 models that used monoexponential decay with zero asymptote repeatedly produced an estimate for relaxation rate and were used to analyze effects of anesthesia and calcium gluconate administration on relaxation rate. Isoflurane and halothane each prolonged right ventricular relaxation rate, with greater prolongation evident in halothane-anesthetized horses. Calcium gluconate attenuated the anesthesia-induced prolongation in right ventricular relaxation rate, with greater response obtained in isoflurane-anesthetized horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Right ventricular relaxation rate in horses is assessed best by use of a monoexponential decay model with zero asymptote and nonlinear regression. Intravenous administration of calcium gluconate to isoflurane-anesthetized horses best preserves myocardial relaxant function. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:872–879)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To evaluate the effects of halothane and isoflurane on cardiovascular function and serum total and ionized calcium concentrations in horses, and to determine whether administration of calcium gluconate would attenuate these effects.

Animals

6 clinically normal adult Thoroughbreds.

Procedure

Catheters were inserted for measurement of arterial blood pressures, pulmonary arterial blood pressures, right ventricular pressure (for determination of myocardial contractility), right atrial pressure, and cardiac output and for collection of arterial blood samples. Anesthesia was then induced with xylazine hydrochloride and ketamine hydrochloride and maintained with halothane or isoflurane. An IV infusion of calcium gluconate was begun 75 minutes after anesthetic induction; dosage of calcium gluconate was 0.1 mg/kg of body weight/min for the first 15 minutes, 0.2 mg/kg/min for the next 15 minutes, and 0.4 mg/kg/min for an additional 15 minutes. Data were collected before, during, and after administration of calcium gluconate.

Results

Halothane and isoflurane decreased myocardial contractility, cardiac index, and mean arterial pressure, but halothane caused greater depression than isoflurane. Calcium gluconate attenuated the anesthetic-induced depression in cardiac index, stroke index, and maximal rate of increase in right ventricular pressure when horses were anesthetized with isoflurane. When horses were anesthetized with halothane, a higher dosage of calcium gluconate was required to attenuate the depression in stroke index and maximal rate of increase in right ventricular pressure; cardiac index was not changed with calcium administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

IV administration of calcium gluconate may support myocardial function in horses anesthetized with isoflurane. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1430–1435)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research