Objective—To determine nitrogen balance in clinically
normal dogs receiving parenteral nutrition solutions.
Animals—8 clinically normal female Beagles.
Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to
receive 4 treatments in random order. Treatment A
consisted of IV administration of nonlactated Ringer's
solution. Treatments B, C, and D consisted of IV
administration of isocaloric parenteral solutions containing
0, 1.36, and 2.04 g of amino acids/kg of body
weight/d, respectively, for 7 consecutive days. Urine
and feces were collected on days 5, 6, and 7 of each
treatment period, and Kjeldahl analysis was used to
determine nitrogen balance.
Results—Mean nitrogen balance was negative with
treatments A and B but was not significantly different
from 0 with treatments C and D. Dogs had the lowest
nitrogen balance values and lost the most weight
while receiving treatment A. Dogs were able to conserve
protein and had higher nitrogen balance values
when receiving treatment B, compared with treatment
A. Dogs lost the least amount of weight while
receiving treatment D. Regression analysis indicated
that an IV amino acid intake of 2.32 g/kg/d (95% confidence
interval, 2.00 to 2.81 g/kg/d), as supplied by
the commercial product used in this study, would
result in zero nitrogen balance in clinically normal
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that IV amino acid requirement of clinically normal
dogs is approximately 2.3 g/kg/d. ( Am J Vet Res 2001;62:912–920)
Objective—To determine sensitivity and specificity of
assays of D-dimer concentrations in dogs with disseminated
intravascular coagulation (DIC) and healthy
dogs and to compare these results with those of
serum and plasma fibrin-fibrinogen degradation product
Animals—20 dogs with DIC and 30 healthy dogs.
Procedure—Semi-quantitative and quantitative
D-dimer concentrations were determined by use of
latex-agglutination and immunoturbidometry, respectively.
Fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products were
measured by use of latex-agglutination. A reference
range for the immunoturbidometric D-dimer concentration
assay was established; sensitivity and specificity
of the assay were determined at 2 cutoff concentrations
(0.30 µg/ml and 0.39 µg/ml).
Results—Reference range for the immunoturbidometric
D-dimer concentration assay was 0.08 to
0.39 µg/ml; median concentrations were significantly
higher in dogs with DIC than in healthy dogs. Latexagglutination
D-dimer and serum and plasma FDP
assays had similar sensitivity (85 to 100%) and specificity
(90 to 100%); the immunoturbidometric assay
had lower specificity (77%) at the 0.30 µg/ml cutoff
and lower sensitivity (65%) at the 0.39 µg/ml cutoff.
Sensitivity or specificity of the latex-agglutination
D-dimer assay was not significantly improved when
interpreted in series or parallel with FDP assays.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Measurement
of D-dimer concentrations by latex-agglutination
appears to be a sensitive and specific ancillary test for
DIC in dogs. Specificity of D-dimer concentrations in
dogs with systemic disease other than DIC has not
been determined, therefore FDP and D-dimer assays
should be performed concurrently as supportive tests
for the diagnosis of DIC in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:393–398)
Objective—To evaluate the effect of diets enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on in vivo production of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and platelet-activating factor (PAF) in dogs.
Animals—15 young healthy dogs.
Procedures—Dogs were randomly allocated to receive an isocaloric ration supplemented with sunflower oil (n = 5), fish oil (5), or fish oil plus vitamin E (5) for 12 weeks. At week 12, in vivo production of inflammatory mediators was evaluated in serum at multiple time points for 6 hours following stimulation with IV administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
Results—Serum activity or concentration (area under the curve) of IL-1, IL-6, and PGE2 significantly increased after LPS injection in all groups but to a lesser extent in dogs receiving the fish oil diet, compared with results for dogs receiving the sunflower oil diet. Serum activity of TNF-α and PAF concentration also increased significantly after LPS injection in all groups but did not differ significantly among groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A fish oil–enriched diet consisting of 1.75 g of EPA/kg of diet and 2.2 g of DHA/kg of diet (dry-matter basis) with an n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio of 3.4:1 was associated with significant reductions in serum PGE2 concentrations and IL-1 and IL-6 activities. Results supported the use of EPA- and DHA-enriched diets as part of antiinflammatory treatments for dogs with chronic inflammatory diseases. Additional studies in affected dogs are warranted to further evaluate beneficial anti-inflammatory effects of EPA- and DHA-enriched diets.
Objective—To determine the prognostic factors for
survival and tumor recurrence in dogs with cutaneous
mast cell tumors (MCTs) in the perineal and inguinal
regions treated surgically with or without adjunctive
radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or both.
Procedure—Medical records of dogs with histologically
confirmed MCTs in the perineal region, inguinal
region, or both treated surgically with or without
adjunctive radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or both
Results—Mean tumor-free interval was 1,635 days
(median not reached), and 1- and 2-year tumor-free
rates were 79% and 71%, respectively. Median survival
time was 1,111 days (mean, 1,223 days), and 1-
and 2-year survival rates were 79% and 61%, respectively.
Factors that negatively influenced survival time
were age at diagnosis, tumor recurrence, and treatment
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated
that dogs with MCTs in the inguinal and perineal
regions, if appropriately treated, may have survival
times and tumor-free intervals similar to dogs
with MCTs in other locations. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To evaluate factors associated with survival in dogs with nasal carcinomas that did not receive treatment or received only palliative treatment.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—139 dogs with histologically confirmed nasal carcinomas.
Procedures—Medical records, computed tomography images, and biopsy specimens of nasal carcinomas were reviewed. Only dogs that were not treated with radiation, surgery, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy and that survived ≥ 7 days from the date of diagnosis were included. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival time. Factors potentially associated with survival were compared by use of log-rank and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Multivariable survival analysis was performed by use of the Cox proportional hazards regression model.
Results—Overall median survival time was 95 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 73 to 113 days; range, 7 to 1,114 days). In dogs with epistaxis, the hazard of dying was 2.3 times that of dogs that did not have epistaxis. Median survival time of 107 dogs with epistaxis was 88 days (95% CI, 65 to 106 days) and that of 32 dogs without epistaxis was 224 days (95% CI, 54 to 467 days).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The prognosis of dogs with untreated nasal carcinomas is poor. Treatment strategies to improve outcome should be pursued.