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  • Author or Editor: Glenn C. Duff x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of time of administration of tilmicosin and feeding of chlortetracycline on colonization of the nasopharynx of transported cattle by Mannheimia haemolytica (MH).

Animals—454 steers (body weight, 200 kg).

Procedure—3 studies included 4 truckloads of steers assembled and processed in the southeastern United States. For each truckload of steers, a third received tilmicosin before transportation (PRIOR), then all were transported to a feedlot in New Mexico (23 hours). At arrival (day 0), another third received tilmicosin (ARR). The remaining third did not receive tilmicosin (control steers [CTR]). Steers in studies 1 and 2 were housed in a feedlot, and steers in study 3 were housed on wheat pasture. One half of the steers from each group in studies 2 and 3 were fed chlortetracycline on days 5 to 9. Steer with signs of respiratory tract disease were treated. Nasal swab specimens were examined for MH to determine colonization.

Results—PRIOR and ARR steers had a lower incidence of respiratory tract disease and MH colonization than CTR steers, but PRIOR and ARR steers did not differ. Feeding chlortetracycline did not have an effect.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tilmicosin can inhibit MH from colonizing the nasopharynx of cattle. Because tilmicosin inhibits the growth of MH in the respiratory tract, medication with tilmicosin prior to transport should reduce the incidence of acute respiratory tract disease during the first week at the feedlot when calves are most susceptible to infectious organisms. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61: 1479–1483)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of intranasal exposure to live leukotoxin (LktA)-deficient Mannheimia haemolytica (MH) at the time of feedyard arrival on nasopharyngeal colonization by wildtype MH in calves.

Animals—200 calves.

Procedure—Calves from Arkansas (AR calves; n = 100; mean body weight, 205 kg) were purchased from an order buyer barn. Calves from New Mexico (NM calves; n = 100; mean body weight, 188 kg) were obtained from a single ranch. Calves were transported to a feedyard, where half of each group was exposed intranasally with LktA-deficient MH at the time of arrival. Calves were observed daily for respiratory tract disease (RTD), and nasal swab specimens were collected periodically to determine nasopharyngeal colonization status with MH. Serum samples were assayed for antibodies to MH.

Results—15 AR calves had nasopharyngeal colonization by wild-type MH at the order buyer barn, whereas none of the NM calves had nasopharyngeal colonization. Intranasal exposure to LktA-deficient MH elicited an increase in serum antibody titers against MH in NM calves, but titers were less in NM calves treated for RTD. Exposure of NM calves to LktA-deficient MH offered protection from nasopharyngeal colonization by wild-type MH.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Exposure of calves to LktA-deficient MH elicited an increase in serum antibody titers against MH and decreased colonization of the nasopharynx by wild-type MH. Earlier exposure would likely allow an immune response to develop before transportation and offer protection from nasopharyngeal colonization and pneumonia caused by wild-type MH. ( Am J Vet Res 2003;64:580–585)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of vaccination prior to transit and prophylactic administration of florfenicol at time of arrival at a feedyard on health of cattle and colonization of the nasopharynx by Mannheimia haemolytica (MH).

Animals—121 steers from Tennessee and 84 steers from New Mexico.

Procedure—Half of the steers were vaccinated before transport to a feedyard. Steers from Tennessee were vaccinated with MH bacterin-toxoid, and steers from New Mexico were vaccinated intranasally with modified-live leukotoxin-deficient MH. Half of the vaccinates and nonvaccinates were randomly selected to receive florfenicol on arrival at the feedyard. Steers were observed daily for respiratory tract disease (RTD).

Results—Administration of florfenicol at time of arrival reduced the incidence of RTD, delayed the interval before onset of RTD, and reduced the incidence of MH colonization of the nasopharynx for at least 4 days, but vaccination did not have any effect. Vaccination elicited an increase in serum antibody titers to MH. Administration of florfenicol at time of arrival reduced the development of serum antibody titers in intranasally vaccinated steers and both groups of nonvaccinated steers, but intranasal vaccination did not affect colonization by wild-type MH.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of florfenicol at time of arrival decreased the incidence of MH organisms in the nasopharynx and delayed the onset of RTD. Prophylactic use of suitable antibiotics is likely to reduce the incidence of acute RTD in calves for several days after arrival at feedyards, which is the period when they are most susceptible to infectious organisms. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:251–256)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare shedding patterns and serologic responses to bovine coronavirus (BCV) in feedlot calves shipped from a single ranch in New Mexico (NM calves) versus calves assembled from local sale barns in Arkansas (AR calves) and to evaluate the role of BCV on disease and performance.

Animals—103 feedlot calves from New Mexico and 100 from Arkansas.

Procedures—Calves were studied from before shipping to 35 days after arrival at the feedlot. Nasal swab specimens, fecal samples, and serum samples were obtained before shipping, at arrival, and periodically thereafter. Bovine coronavirus antigen and antibodies were detected by use of an ELISA.

Results—NM calves had a high geometric mean titer for BCV antibody at arrival (GMT, 1,928); only 2% shed BCV in nasal secretions and 1% in feces. In contrast, AR calves had low antibody titers against BCV at arrival (GMT, 102) and 64% shed BCV in nasal secretions and 65% in feces. Detection of BCV in nasal secretions preceded detection in feces before shipping AR calves, but at arrival, 73% of AR calves were shedding BCV in nasal secretions and feces. Bovine coronavirus infection was significantly associated with respiratory tract disease and decreased growth performance in AR calves.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Replication and shedding of BCV may start in the upper respiratory tract and spread to the gastrointestinal tract. Vaccination of calves against BCV before shipping to feedlots may provide protection against BCV infection and its effects with other pathogens in the induction of respiratory tract disease.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To detect bovine adenovirus serotype 7 (BAV-7) infections in calves by use of viral isolation and serologic testing.

Animals—205 postweaning calves.

Procedure—121 calves were assembled by an order buyer through auction markets in eastern Tennessee and transported to New Mexico where they were commingled with 84 healthy ranch-reared calves. Tests included viral isolation in cell culture from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and detection of serum BAV-7 antibodies by use of microtitration viral neutralization.

Results —BAV-7 was isolated from PBL of 8 calves and seroconversion to BAV-7 was detected for 38 of 199 (19.1%) calves. Concurrent bovine viral diarrhea virus infections were detected in most calves from which BAV-7 was isolated.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance —Results of our study indicate that BAV-7 infections can be found in postweaning commingled calves and may develop more commonly in calves with concurrent infections with viruses such as bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:976–978).

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research