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To evaluate holding security of 4 friction knots created with various monofilament and multifilament sutures in a vascular ligation model.
280 friction knot constructs.
10 friction knots of 4 types (surgeon's throw, Miller knot, Ashley modification of the Miller knot, and strangle knot) created with 2-0 monofilament (polyglyconate, polydioxanone, poliglecaprone-25, and glycomer-631) and braided multifilament (silk, lactomer, and polyglactin-910) sutures were separately tied on a mock pedicle and pressure tested to the point of leakage. Linear regression analysis was performed to compare leakage pressures among suture materials (within friction knot type) and among knot types (within suture material).
Mean leakage pressure of surgeon's throws was significantly lower than that of all other knots tested, regardless of the suture material used. All the other knots had mean leakage pressures considered supraphysiological. Significant differences in mean leakage pressure were detected between various friction knots tied with the same type of suture and various suture types used to create a given knot. Variability in leakage pressure among knots other than the surgeon's throw was greatest for poliglecaprone-25 and lowest for polydioxanone.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Most differences in knot security, although statistically significant, may not have been clinically relevant. However, results of these in vitro tests suggested the surgeon's throw should be avoided as a first throw for pedicle ligation and that poliglecaprone-25 may be more prone to friction knot slippage than the other suture materials evaluated.
Objective—To validate use of stress MRI for evaluation of stifle joints of dogs with an intact or deficient cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL).
Sample—10 cadaveric stifle joints from 10 dogs.
Procedures—A custom-made limb-holding device and a pulley system linked to a paw plate were used to apply axial compression across the stifle joint and induce cranial tibial translation with the joint in various degrees of flexion. By use of sagittal proton density–weighted MRI, CrCL-intact and deficient stifle joints were evaluated under conditions of loading stress simulating the tibial compression test or the cranial drawer test. Medial and lateral femorotibial subluxation following CrCL transection measured under a simulated tibial compression test and a cranial drawer test were compared.
Results—By use of tibial compression test MRI, the mean ± SD cranial tibial translations in the medial and lateral compartments were 9.6 ± 3.7 mm and 10 ± 4.1 mm, respectively. By use of cranial drawer test MRI, the mean ± SD cranial tibial translations in the medial and lateral compartments were 8.3 ± 3.3 mm and 9.5 ± 3.5 mm, respectively. No significant difference in femorotibial subluxation was found between stress MRI techniques. Femorotibial subluxation elicited by use of the cranial drawer test was greater in the lateral than in the medial compartment.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Both stress techniques induced stifle joint subluxation following CrCL transection that was measurable by use of MRI, suggesting that both methods may be further evaluated for clinical use.
To compare mechanical properties (stiffness, yield load, failure load, and deformation at failure) of 2 pearl-type locking plate system (PLS) constructs (PLS 1 and PLS 2) in a simulated fracture gap model and to compare screw push-out forces of the 2 PLSs with and without plate contouring.
40 PLS constructs.
Mechanical properties of uncontoured PLS 1 (n = 8) and PLS 2 (8) constructs were evaluated in synthetic bone-plate models under axial compression. Screw push-out forces were evaluated in 6 uncontoured and 6 contoured PLSs of each type. Variables of interest were compared between PLS groups and between contoured and uncontoured plates by statistical methods.
Yield and failure loads were higher in the PLS 1 group than in the PLS 2 group, but stiffness did not differ significantly between groups. All constructs failed by plate bending, with greater deformation in the PLS 2 group. Push-out force to screw-plate uncoupling was higher in the PLS 2 group than in the PLS 1 group for uncontoured and contoured plates. Locking mechanism failure of PLS 1 specimens was through screw-thread stripping. The PLS 2 specimens failed by node deformation followed by screwhead stripping.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Distinct mechanical differences were identified between the 2 PLSs. The clinical relevance of these differences is unknown. Further research including cyclic fatigue testing is needed to reveal more clinically pertinent information.
OBJECTIVE To compare stiffness and resistance to cyclic fatigue of two 3.5-mm locking system plate-rod constructs applied to an experimentally created fracture gap in femurs of canine cadavers.
SAMPLE 20 femurs from cadavers of 10 mixed-breed adult dogs.
PROCEDURES 1 femur from each cadaver was stabilized with a conical coupling plating system-rod construct, and the contralateral femur was stabilized with a locking compression plate (LCP)-rod construct. An intramedullary Steinmann pin was inserted in each femur. A 40-mm gap then was created; the gap was centered beneath the central portion of each plate. Cyclic axial loading with increasing loads was performed. Specimens that did not fail during cyclic loading were subjected to an acute load to failure.
RESULTS During cyclic loading, significantly more LCP constructs failed (6/10), compared with the number of conical coupling plating system constructs that failed (1/10). Mode of failure of the constructs included fracture of the medial or caudal aspect of the cortex of the proximal segment with bending of the plate and pin, bending of the plate and pin without fracture, and screw pullout. Mean stiffness, yield load, and load to failure were not significantly different between the 2 methods of stabilization.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Both constructs had similar biomechanical properties, but the conical coupling plating system was less likely to fail than was the LCP system when subjected to cyclic loading. These results should be interpreted with caution because testing was limited to a single loading mode.
In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Radiology
Objective—To compare accuracy of a noninvasive single-plane fluoroscopic technique with radiostereometric analysis (RSA) for determining 3-D femorotibial poses in a canine cadaver with normal stifle joints.
Sample—Right pelvic limb from a 25-kg adult mixed-breed dog.
Procedures—A CT scan of the limb was obtained before and after metal beads were implanted into the right femur and tibia. Orthogonal fluoroscopic images of the right stifle joint were acquired to simulate a biplanar fluoroscopic acquisition setup. Images were obtained at 5 flexion angles from 110° to 150° to simulate a gait cycle; 5 cycles were completed. Joint poses were calculated from the biplanar images by use of RSA with CT-derived beaded bone models and compared with measurements obtained by use of CT-derived nonbeaded bone models matched to single-plane, lateral-view fluoroscopic images. Single-plane measurements were performed by 2 observers and repeated 3 times by the primary observer.
Results—Mean absolute differences between the single-plane fluoroscopic analysis and RSA measurements were 0.60, 1.28, and 0.64 mm for craniocaudal, proximodistal, and mediolateral translations, respectively, and 0.63°, 1.49°, and 1.58° for flexion-extension, abduction-adduction, and internal-external rotations, respectively. Intra- and interobserver repeatability was strong with maximum mean translational and rotational SDs of 0.52 mm and 1.36°, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that single-plane fluoroscopic analysis performed by use of CT-derived bone models is a valid, noninvasive technique for accurately measuring 3-D femorotibial poses in dogs.
Objective—To compare accuracy of a noninvasive single-plane fluoroscopic analysis technique with radiostereometric analysis (RSA) for determining 3-D femorotibial poses in a canine cadaver stifle joint treated by tibial-plateau-leveling osteotomy (TPLO).
Sample—Left pelvic limb from a 25-kg adult mixed-breed dog.
Procedures—A CT scan of the left pelvic limb was performed. The left cranial cruciate ligament was transected, and a TPLO was performed. Radiopaque beads were implanted into the left femur and tibia, and the CT scan was repeated. Orthogonal fluoroscopic images of the left stifle joint were acquired at 5 stifle joint flexion angles ranging from 110° to 150° to simulate a gait cycle; 5 gait cycles were completed. Joint poses were calculated from the biplanar images by use of a digitally modified RSA and were compared with measurements obtained by use of hybrid implant-bone models matched to lateral-view fluoroscopic images. Single-plane measurements were performed by 2 observers and repeated 3 times by the primary observer.
Results—Mean absolute differences between results of the single-plane fluoroscopic analysis and modified RSA were 0.34, 1.05, and 0.48 mm for craniocaudal, proximodistal, and mediolateral translations, respectively, and 0.56°, 0.85°, and 1.08° for flexion-extension, abduction-adduction, and internal-external rotations, respectively. Intraobserver and interobserver mean SDs did not exceed 0.59 mm for all translations and 0.93° for all rotations.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that single-plane fluoroscopic analysis by use of hybrid implant-bone models may be a valid, noninvasive technique for accurately measuring 3-D femorotibial poses in dogs treated with TPLO.
To investigate the CT features of cavitary pulmonary lesions and determine their utility to differentiate malignant from benign lesions.
This retrospective study included cases from 5 veterinary medical centers between January 1 2010, and December 31, 2020. Inclusion criteria included having a gas-filled cavitary pulmonary lesion on thoracic CT and definitive diagnosis by either cytology or histopathology. Forty-two animals (27 dogs and 15 cats) were included in this study.
Medical records systems/imaging databases were searched, and cases meeting inclusion criteria were selected. The CT studies were interpreted by a third-year radiology resident, and findings were reviewed by a board-certified veterinary radiologist.
7 of the 13 lesion characteristics investigated were not statistically associated with the final diagnosis of the lesion, whereas 6 were statistically associated. Those that were associated included the presence of intralesional contrast enhancement, type of intralesional contrast enhancement (heterogenous and homogenous analyzed separately), presence of additional nodules, wall thickness of the lesion at its thickest point, and wall thickness at the thinnest point.
Results from the present study showed that thoracic CT imaging of cavitary pulmonary lesions can be used to further refine the list of differential diagnoses. Based on this data set, in lesions that have heterogenous contrast enhancement, additional pulmonary nodules, and wall thickness > 40 mm at their thickest point, it would be reasonable to consider malignant neoplastic disease higher on the list of differentials than other causes.
To provide updated information on the distribution of histopathologic types of primary pulmonary neoplasia in dogs and evaluate the effect of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in dogs with pulmonary carcinoma.
Medical records of dogs that underwent lung lobectomy for removal of a primary pulmonary mass were reviewed, and histopathologic type of lesions was determined. The canine lung carcinoma stage classification system was used to determine clinical stage for dogs with pulmonary carcinoma.
Pulmonary carcinoma was the most frequently encountered tumor type (296/340 [87.1%]), followed by sarcoma (26 [7.6%]), adenoma (11 [3.2%]), and pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor (5 [1.5%]); there was also 1 plasmacytoma and 1 carcinosarcoma. Twenty (5.9%) sarcomas were classified as primary pulmonary histiocytic sarcoma. There was a significant difference in median survival time between dogs with pulmonary carcinomas (399 days), dogs with histiocytic sarcomas (300 days), and dogs with neuroendocrine tumors (498 days). When dogs with pulmonary carcinomas were grouped on the basis of clinical stage, there were no significant differences in median survival time between dogs that did and did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy.
Results indicated that pulmonary carcinoma is the most common cause of primary pulmonary neoplasia in dogs; however, nonepithelial tumors can occur. Survival times were significantly different between dogs with pulmonary carcinoma, histiocytic sarcoma, and neuroendocrine tumor, emphasizing the importance of recognizing the relative incidence of these various histologic diagnoses. The therapeutic effect of adjuvant chemotherapy in dogs with pulmonary carcinoma remains unclear and warrants further investigation.