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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate holding security of 4 friction knots created with various monofilament and multifilament sutures in a vascular ligation model.

SAMPLE

280 friction knot constructs.

PROCEDURES

10 friction knots of 4 types (surgeon's throw, Miller knot, Ashley modification of the Miller knot, and strangle knot) created with 2-0 monofilament (polyglyconate, polydioxanone, poliglecaprone-25, and glycomer-631) and braided multifilament (silk, lactomer, and polyglactin-910) sutures were separately tied on a mock pedicle and pressure tested to the point of leakage. Linear regression analysis was performed to compare leakage pressures among suture materials (within friction knot type) and among knot types (within suture material).

RESULTS

Mean leakage pressure of surgeon's throws was significantly lower than that of all other knots tested, regardless of the suture material used. All the other knots had mean leakage pressures considered supraphysiological. Significant differences in mean leakage pressure were detected between various friction knots tied with the same type of suture and various suture types used to create a given knot. Variability in leakage pressure among knots other than the surgeon's throw was greatest for poliglecaprone-25 and lowest for polydioxanone.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Most differences in knot security, although statistically significant, may not have been clinically relevant. However, results of these in vitro tests suggested the surgeon's throw should be avoided as a first throw for pedicle ligation and that poliglecaprone-25 may be more prone to friction knot slippage than the other suture materials evaluated.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To validate use of stress MRI for evaluation of stifle joints of dogs with an intact or deficient cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL).

Sample—10 cadaveric stifle joints from 10 dogs.

Procedures—A custom-made limb-holding device and a pulley system linked to a paw plate were used to apply axial compression across the stifle joint and induce cranial tibial translation with the joint in various degrees of flexion. By use of sagittal proton density–weighted MRI, CrCL-intact and deficient stifle joints were evaluated under conditions of loading stress simulating the tibial compression test or the cranial drawer test. Medial and lateral femorotibial subluxation following CrCL transection measured under a simulated tibial compression test and a cranial drawer test were compared.

Results—By use of tibial compression test MRI, the mean ± SD cranial tibial translations in the medial and lateral compartments were 9.6 ± 3.7 mm and 10 ± 4.1 mm, respectively. By use of cranial drawer test MRI, the mean ± SD cranial tibial translations in the medial and lateral compartments were 8.3 ± 3.3 mm and 9.5 ± 3.5 mm, respectively. No significant difference in femorotibial subluxation was found between stress MRI techniques. Femorotibial subluxation elicited by use of the cranial drawer test was greater in the lateral than in the medial compartment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Both stress techniques induced stifle joint subluxation following CrCL transection that was measurable by use of MRI, suggesting that both methods may be further evaluated for clinical use.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To report to what degree narrative operative reports for soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and mast cell tumor (MCT) resections met a predetermined template made up of essential elements.

ANIMALS

197 consecutive client-owned animals between May 1, 2017, and August 1, 2022.

PROCEDURES

A consensus list of 9 elements made up the final synoptic operative report (SR) template. Consecutive narrative surgery reports (NRs) of dogs that underwent MCT or STS resection were then reviewed to determine how many of the SR elements were present in each NR. A score was then determined for each NR out of a maximum total of 9.

RESULTS

Overall, 197 reports (99 MCT and 98 STS) were included. The median score was 5 (56% of elements reported). No report had all 9 elements, and 1 report had none of the elements reported. When MCT and STS were analyzed independently, the median score was 6 (67% of elements reported) for MCT and 5 (56% of elements reported) for STS. There was a trend of more cases with MCT that had a preoperative diagnosis, intraoperative measurements of the tumor, and surgeon margins marked compared to dogs with STS. More dogs with STS had an estimated Enneking dose compared to dogs with MCT.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Our data show that essential elements of STS and MCT resection in dogs were inconsistently recorded and no case had all elements present. This mirrors data in people and presses the need for more standardization in reporting of cancer operations in veterinary medicine.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare mechanical properties (stiffness, yield load, failure load, and deformation at failure) of 2 pearl-type locking plate system (PLS) constructs (PLS 1 and PLS 2) in a simulated fracture gap model and to compare screw push-out forces of the 2 PLSs with and without plate contouring.

SAMPLE

40 PLS constructs.

PROCEDURES

Mechanical properties of uncontoured PLS 1 (n = 8) and PLS 2 (8) constructs were evaluated in synthetic bone-plate models under axial compression. Screw push-out forces were evaluated in 6 uncontoured and 6 contoured PLSs of each type. Variables of interest were compared between PLS groups and between contoured and uncontoured plates by statistical methods.

RESULTS

Yield and failure loads were higher in the PLS 1 group than in the PLS 2 group, but stiffness did not differ significantly between groups. All constructs failed by plate bending, with greater deformation in the PLS 2 group. Push-out force to screw-plate uncoupling was higher in the PLS 2 group than in the PLS 1 group for uncontoured and contoured plates. Locking mechanism failure of PLS 1 specimens was through screw-thread stripping. The PLS 2 specimens failed by node deformation followed by screwhead stripping.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Distinct mechanical differences were identified between the 2 PLSs. The clinical relevance of these differences is unknown. Further research including cyclic fatigue testing is needed to reveal more clinically pertinent information.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare stiffness and resistance to cyclic fatigue of two 3.5-mm locking system plate-rod constructs applied to an experimentally created fracture gap in femurs of canine cadavers.

SAMPLE 20 femurs from cadavers of 10 mixed-breed adult dogs.

PROCEDURES 1 femur from each cadaver was stabilized with a conical coupling plating system-rod construct, and the contralateral femur was stabilized with a locking compression plate (LCP)-rod construct. An intramedullary Steinmann pin was inserted in each femur. A 40-mm gap then was created; the gap was centered beneath the central portion of each plate. Cyclic axial loading with increasing loads was performed. Specimens that did not fail during cyclic loading were subjected to an acute load to failure.

RESULTS During cyclic loading, significantly more LCP constructs failed (6/10), compared with the number of conical coupling plating system constructs that failed (1/10). Mode of failure of the constructs included fracture of the medial or caudal aspect of the cortex of the proximal segment with bending of the plate and pin, bending of the plate and pin without fracture, and screw pullout. Mean stiffness, yield load, and load to failure were not significantly different between the 2 methods of stabilization.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Both constructs had similar biomechanical properties, but the conical coupling plating system was less likely to fail than was the LCP system when subjected to cyclic loading. These results should be interpreted with caution because testing was limited to a single loading mode.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Radiology

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Thromboelastography (TEG) is a whole blood assay that yields global assessment of hemostasis, as it evaluates clot time, strength, and kinematics of clot formation and lysis. The main objective was to describe preoperative TEG findings in dogs that had an adrenalectomy performed and, secondarily, to describe TEG findings in the dogs with or without hyperadrenocorticism (HAC).

ANIMALS

30 dogs that had preoperative TEG and adrenalectomy performed.

METHODS

Medical records between 2018 and 2022 were reviewed. Signalment, diagnostic data, and perioperative treatment were abstracted.

RESULTS

53% (16/30) of the dogs were hypercoagulable, and none were hypocoagulable. Based on histopathology, 6 of 9 dogs with adenocarcinoma were hypercoagulable, 4 of 8 with pheochromocytoma were hypercoagulable, and 6 of 10 with adenoma were hypercoagulable. None of the 3 dogs with other histopathologic diagnoses or combinations of diagnoses (adrenocortical hyperplasia, poorly differentiated sarcoma, and both adrenocortical adenocarcinoma and pheochromocytoma) were hypercoagulable. Of the 14 dogs tested preoperatively for HAC, 4 of 8 HAC dogs were hypercoagulable and 2 of 6 non-HAC dogs were hypercoagulable.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The present report describes for the first time TEG findings for dogs undergoing adrenalectomy and suggests that the majority of dogs with adrenal neoplasia are hypercoagulable based on TEG results.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare accuracy of a noninvasive single-plane fluoroscopic technique with radiostereometric analysis (RSA) for determining 3-D femorotibial poses in a canine cadaver with normal stifle joints.

Sample—Right pelvic limb from a 25-kg adult mixed-breed dog.

Procedures—A CT scan of the limb was obtained before and after metal beads were implanted into the right femur and tibia. Orthogonal fluoroscopic images of the right stifle joint were acquired to simulate a biplanar fluoroscopic acquisition setup. Images were obtained at 5 flexion angles from 110° to 150° to simulate a gait cycle; 5 cycles were completed. Joint poses were calculated from the biplanar images by use of RSA with CT-derived beaded bone models and compared with measurements obtained by use of CT-derived nonbeaded bone models matched to single-plane, lateral-view fluoroscopic images. Single-plane measurements were performed by 2 observers and repeated 3 times by the primary observer.

Results—Mean absolute differences between the single-plane fluoroscopic analysis and RSA measurements were 0.60, 1.28, and 0.64 mm for craniocaudal, proximodistal, and mediolateral translations, respectively, and 0.63°, 1.49°, and 1.58° for flexion-extension, abduction-adduction, and internal-external rotations, respectively. Intra- and interobserver repeatability was strong with maximum mean translational and rotational SDs of 0.52 mm and 1.36°, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that single-plane fluoroscopic analysis performed by use of CT-derived bone models is a valid, noninvasive technique for accurately measuring 3-D femorotibial poses in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare accuracy of a noninvasive single-plane fluoroscopic analysis technique with radiostereometric analysis (RSA) for determining 3-D femorotibial poses in a canine cadaver stifle joint treated by tibial-plateau-leveling osteotomy (TPLO).

Sample—Left pelvic limb from a 25-kg adult mixed-breed dog.

Procedures—A CT scan of the left pelvic limb was performed. The left cranial cruciate ligament was transected, and a TPLO was performed. Radiopaque beads were implanted into the left femur and tibia, and the CT scan was repeated. Orthogonal fluoroscopic images of the left stifle joint were acquired at 5 stifle joint flexion angles ranging from 110° to 150° to simulate a gait cycle; 5 gait cycles were completed. Joint poses were calculated from the biplanar images by use of a digitally modified RSA and were compared with measurements obtained by use of hybrid implant-bone models matched to lateral-view fluoroscopic images. Single-plane measurements were performed by 2 observers and repeated 3 times by the primary observer.

Results—Mean absolute differences between results of the single-plane fluoroscopic analysis and modified RSA were 0.34, 1.05, and 0.48 mm for craniocaudal, proximodistal, and mediolateral translations, respectively, and 0.56°, 0.85°, and 1.08° for flexion-extension, abduction-adduction, and internal-external rotations, respectively. Intraobserver and interobserver mean SDs did not exceed 0.59 mm for all translations and 0.93° for all rotations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that single-plane fluoroscopic analysis by use of hybrid implant-bone models may be a valid, noninvasive technique for accurately measuring 3-D femorotibial poses in dogs treated with TPLO.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the CT features of cavitary pulmonary lesions and determine their utility to differentiate malignant from benign lesions.

ANIMALS

This retrospective study included cases from 5 veterinary medical centers between January 1 2010, and December 31, 2020. Inclusion criteria included having a gas-filled cavitary pulmonary lesion on thoracic CT and definitive diagnosis by either cytology or histopathology. Forty-two animals (27 dogs and 15 cats) were included in this study.

PROCEDURES

Medical records systems/imaging databases were searched, and cases meeting inclusion criteria were selected. The CT studies were interpreted by a third-year radiology resident, and findings were reviewed by a board-certified veterinary radiologist.

RESULTS

7 of the 13 lesion characteristics investigated were not statistically associated with the final diagnosis of the lesion, whereas 6 were statistically associated. Those that were associated included the presence of intralesional contrast enhancement, type of intralesional contrast enhancement (heterogenous and homogenous analyzed separately), presence of additional nodules, wall thickness of the lesion at its thickest point, and wall thickness at the thinnest point.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results from the present study showed that thoracic CT imaging of cavitary pulmonary lesions can be used to further refine the list of differential diagnoses. Based on this data set, in lesions that have heterogenous contrast enhancement, additional pulmonary nodules, and wall thickness > 40 mm at their thickest point, it would be reasonable to consider malignant neoplastic disease higher on the list of differentials than other causes.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association