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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the ECG findings in 3 different canine brachycephalic breeds: the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, the Pug, and the English Bulldog (EB).

ANIMALS

135 healthy dogs (50 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels, 50 Pugs, and 35 EBs).

PROCEDURES

Medical records were retrospectively reviewed to identify healthy dogs ≥ 1 year old that had undergone an ECG. The Mann-Whitney U test or the Student t test were used to compare continuous variables between male and female dogs, whereas the χ2 test was used for categorical variables. Spearman correlation coefficients between ECG measurements and age and body weight were also calculated in the case of continuous variables, whereas the Kruskal-Wallis test was used for categorical ones.

RESULTS

Electrocardiographic parameters of healthy Cavalier King Charles Spaniels overall fitted with traditional reference intervals cited in textbooks; in contrast, 28% of Pugs and 20% of EBs showed a shift of the QRS-complex mean electrical axis (QRS-MEA). In Pugs and EBs, the mean/median QRS-MEA value was 56° (from 0° to 100°) and 59° (from 20° to 100°), respectively. All axis shifts were left shifts (in Pugs, from 0° to 34°; in EBs, 20° to 39°). Only a few meaningful differences were found when comparing ECG variables between males and females. Similarly, only 1 statistically significant correlation was found between ECG parameters and age and body weight.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Healthy Pugs and EBs present a trend to a left shift of the QRS-MEA. This should be considered when interpreting ECG tracings in these breeds.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and interobserver variability of survey thoracic radiography (STR) for the detection of heart base masses (HBMs) in dogs.

DESIGN Retrospective case-control study.

ANIMALS 30 dogs with an HBM and 120 breed-matched control dogs (60 healthy dogs and 60 dogs with heart disease and no HBM).

PROCEDURES In a blinded manner, 2 observers (designated as A and B) evaluated STR views from each dog for a mass-like opacity cranial to the heart, tracheal deviation, cardiomegaly, findings suggestive of pericardial effusion or right-sided congestive heart failure, and soft tissue opacities suggestive of pulmonary metastases. Investigators subsequently provided a final interpretation of each dog's HBM status (definitely affected, equivocal, or definitely not affected).

RESULTS Considering equivocal interpretation as negative or positive for an HBM, the sensitivity of STR for diagnosis of an HBM was 40.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22.5% to 57.5%) and 56.7% (95% CI, 38.9% to 74.4%), respectively, for observer A and 63% (95% CI, 46.1% to 80.6%) and 80.0% (95% CI, 65.7% to 94.3%), respectively, for observer B. The corresponding specificity was 96.7% (95% CI, 93.5% to 99.9%) and 92.5% (95% CI, 87.8% to 97.2%), respectively, for observer A and 99.2% (95% CI, 97.5% to 100%) and 92.5% (95% CI, 87.8% to 97.2%), respectively, for observer B. The presence of a mass-like opacity cranial to the heart or tracheal deviation, or both, was significantly associated with a true diagnosis of HBM.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that STR is a highly specific but not a highly sensitive predictor of HBM in dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association