A 15-year-old 15-kg male English Setter was evaluated because of polyuria, polydipsia, exercise intolerance, and intermittent panting for the preceding 3 weeks. The owners reported that episodes of panting were not related to either physical activity or emotional stress and that the dog had collapsed during a walk. The patient was an indoor dog that was up to date with vaccinations and parasite prevention and had no known exposure to toxic agents or human medications.
On initial examination, the dog was bright and alert. Cardiac auscultation revealed a grade 2/6 left apical systolic murmur; the heart rate was 140
A 9-year-old 31-kg castrated male mixed-breed dog was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Bologna for treatment of a 4 X 4-cm splenic mass incidentally identified by the referral veterinarian. The dog was otherwise healthy; its past medical history was unremarkable. On presentation, cardiac auscultation revealed an irregular heart rhythm with a heart rate of 80 to 120 beats/min. The femoral pulses were strong and synchronous with the heartbeat. The remaining physical findings were normal. Preanesthetic screening included routine blood tests (CBC, serum biochemical panel, and restricted coagulation panel) and thoracic radiography, which yielded unremarkable
An 8-year-old 19-kg (41.8-lb) spayed female mixed-breed dog was referred to Istituto Veterinario di Novara medical center because of sudden onset of dyspnea. The dog had a 2-year history of chronic bronchopathy of unknown origin. The owner, a physician, treated the dog using a home therapy delivery protocol without veterinary medical consultation. The owner administered betamethasone (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) and albuterol (salbutamol; 0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) for a period of 2 years. The dosage of albuterol was approximately 4 times the recommended therapeutic dosage1 for dogs (0.05 mg/kg [0.023
A 7-year-old 23-kg (51-lb) sexually intact male English Bulldog was evaluated at the Cardiology Unit of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Bologna because of recurrent ascites secondary to right congestive heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias. A presumptive diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC)1 had been made a few months prior on the basis of findings of echocardiography, electrocardiography, and 24-hour Holter monitoring. The dog was currently being treated with torsemidea (0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h), benazepril hydrochlorideb (0.5 mg/kg [0.23 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h), spironolactonec
OBJECTIVE To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and interobserver variability of survey thoracic radiography (STR) for the detection of heart base masses (HBMs) in dogs.
DESIGN Retrospective case-control study.
ANIMALS 30 dogs with an HBM and 120 breed-matched control dogs (60 healthy dogs and 60 dogs with heart disease and no HBM).
PROCEDURES In a blinded manner, 2 observers (designated as A and B) evaluated STR views from each dog for a mass-like opacity cranial to the heart, tracheal deviation, cardiomegaly, findings suggestive of pericardial effusion or right-sided congestive heart failure, and soft tissue opacities suggestive of pulmonary metastases. Investigators subsequently provided a final interpretation of each dog's HBM status (definitely affected, equivocal, or definitely not affected).
RESULTS Considering equivocal interpretation as negative or positive for an HBM, the sensitivity of STR for diagnosis of an HBM was 40.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22.5% to 57.5%) and 56.7% (95% CI, 38.9% to 74.4%), respectively, for observer A and 63% (95% CI, 46.1% to 80.6%) and 80.0% (95% CI, 65.7% to 94.3%), respectively, for observer B. The corresponding specificity was 96.7% (95% CI, 93.5% to 99.9%) and 92.5% (95% CI, 87.8% to 97.2%), respectively, for observer A and 99.2% (95% CI, 97.5% to 100%) and 92.5% (95% CI, 87.8% to 97.2%), respectively, for observer B. The presence of a mass-like opacity cranial to the heart or tracheal deviation, or both, was significantly associated with a true diagnosis of HBM.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that STR is a highly specific but not a highly sensitive predictor of HBM in dogs.