Objective—To evaluate predictors of survival time in dogs undergoing adrenalectomy and identify risk factors associated with adrenal gland tumor metastasis and vein thrombosis.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—52 dogs with primary adrenal gland tumors.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed. Signalment, tumor features, and information from surgical procedures were evaluated to identify factors predictive of overall survival time, which was defined as the time from surgery until death. The association between metastasis or vein thrombosis and tumor type, size, and site (right or left adrenal gland) was investigated.
Results—On the basis of results of univariate analysis, survival time was significantly shorter for dogs with adenocarcinoma, tumor major axis length ≥ 5 cm, metastasis, and vein thrombosis and when adrenalectomy was combined with an additional abdominal surgical intervention. On multivariate analysis, survival time was significantly shorter for dogs with an adrenal gland tumor with major axis length ≥ 5 cm and for dogs with metastasis or vein thrombosis. Significant associations were found between metastasis and adenocarcinoma and between vein thrombosis and tumors with major axis length ≥ 5 cm.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs with an adrenal gland tumor with major axis length ≥ 5 cm, documented metastasis, or vein thrombosis had a poorer prognosis. Metastasis was more frequent in dogs with adenocarcinoma and vein thrombosis when tumors were ≥ 5 cm in length.
Objective—To identify prognostic factors in cats with injection-site sarcomas (ISSs).
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—57 cats with ISSs.
Procedures—Medical records of cats were reviewed with regard to sex, age, anatomic site of tumor, tumor size, histologic grade, excision of a primary tumor versus excision of a recurrent ISS, use of excision alone versus excision plus adjuvant therapy, local tumor recurrence, and development of distant metastasis to predict overall survival time (ie, time from tumor excision to death).
Results—In univariate analyses, local recurrence and development of distant metastasis were significantly associated with survival time in cats. On multivariate analysis, development of distant metastasis remained a significant prognostic factor. Histologic grade was associated with distant metastasis, with cats having grade 3 tumors being significantly more likely to develop metastasis than cats with grade 1 and 2 tumors. Factors associated with local recurrence of ISSs were not identified.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The development of distant metastasis, which may occur later during the course of the disease, was identified as a prognostic factor for overall survival time in cats with ISSs. In addition, cats with histologic grade 3 ISSs should be considered for further interventional studies with chemotherapy to prevent the high rate of distant metastasis.
Objective—To determine factors predicting survival in dogs with high-grade multicentric lymphoma.
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Animals—127 dogs with high-grade multicentric lymphoma evaluated at 4 veterinary hospitals from 2000 to 2009.
Procedures—Records were reviewed to identify dogs with completely staged high-grade multicentric lymphoma treated with chemotherapy. Data collected included signalment, history, hematologic findings, tumor characteristics, treatment, and outcome. Long-term survival was defined as surviving > 2 years after diagnosis. Variables were analyzed for associations with dogs living > 2 years.
Results—Among the 127 enrolled dogs, 13 (10%) survived > 2 years with a median survival time of 914 days (range, 740 to 2,058 days). Survival rates at 3, 4, and 5 years were 4%, 3%, and 1 %, respectively. At diagnosis, 11 of the 13 long-term survivors had a body weight ≥ 10 kg, PCV ≥ 35%, absence of ionized hypercalcemia, centroblastic lymphoma, immunophenotype B, absence of bone marrow involvement, and lymphoma stages I through IV and were not previously treated with corticosteroids. The same combination of factors was present in 26 of 114 (23%) dogs surviving ≤ 2 years, yielding a negative predictive value of 97.8% for long-term survivors. Four of the 6 long-term survivors that died during the study died of another cancer; 3 of them had osteosarcoma.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Absence of the aforementioned combination of variables at diagnosis may help identify dogs with lymphoma that will not survive > 2 years. Other types of neoplasia, in particular osteosarcoma, may develop in long-term–surviving dogs.
Objective—To determine prognostic factors for and compare outcome among dogs with oral malignant melanoma following excision with or without various systemic adjuvant therapies.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—151 dogs with naturally occurring oral malignant melanomas treated by excision with or without adjuvant therapies from 2001 to 2012.
Procedures—Case accrual was solicited from Veterinary Society of Surgical Oncology members via an email list service. Information collected from case records included signalment, tumor staging, tumor characteristics, type of surgical excision, histologic diagnosis, adjuvant therapy, and survival time.
Results—The overall median survival time was 346 days. Results of multivariate analysis indicated that tumor size, patient age, and intralesional excision (vs marginal, wide, or radical excision) were considered poor prognostic indicators. All other demographic and clinical variables were not significantly associated with survival time after adjusting for the aforementioned 3 variables. A clear survival benefit was not evident with any systemic adjuvant therapy, including vaccination against melanoma or chemotherapy; however, the number of dogs in each treatment group was small. Ninety-eight dogs received no postoperative adjuvant therapy, and there was no difference in survival time between dogs that did (335 days) and did not (352 days) receive systemic adjuvant therapy.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—For dogs with oral malignant melanoma, increasing tumor size and age were negative prognostic factors. Complete excision of all macroscopic tumor burden improved survival time. Long-term survival was possible following surgery alone. Although systemic adjuvant therapy was not found to improve survival time, this could have been due to type II error.
Objective—To describe clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome of dogs with inflammatory carcinoma (IC) and identify patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factors associated with overall survival time.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—43 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—Records of dogs with a clinical diagnosis of IC that had histologic evidence of dermal lymphatic invasion were reviewed. Data on clinical staging, treatment, toxicoses, response, and survival time were retrieved.
Results—26 (60%) dogs had primary IC and 17 (40%) had secondary IC. Thirty-five (81%) dogs had distant metastases and 2 (5%) had local metastases at the time of initial examination. Six of 29 (21%) dogs had a coagulopathy. Sixteen (37%) dogs did not receive specific treatment for IC, 24 (56%) received medical treatment only, 2 (5%) underwent surgical excision and received medical treatment, and 1 (2%) underwent surgical excision only. Forty-one (95%) dogs had progressive disease, and 2 (5%) had stable disease. Mean survival time for all dogs was 60 days (range, 1 to 300 days). Dogs with a coagulopathy survived a significantly shorter time than did dogs without a coagulopathy (odds ratio, 0.28), and dogs that received medical treatment survived significantly longer than dogs that did not (odds ratio, 2.54).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that mammary IC is a biologically aggressive condition in dogs associated with a guarded prognosis. In addition, results suggested that medical treatment may improve outcome, thereby supporting its use in dogs with IC.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate potential associations between surgical approach and complication rate, progression-free survival time, and disease-specific survival time in cats with mammary adenocarcinoma.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 107 client-owned cats.
PROCEDURES Medical records of cats that underwent surgical excision of mammary adenocarcinoma by means of a unilateral or bilateral (staged or single-session) mastectomy at 9 hospitals between 1991 and 2014 were reviewed. Relevant clinicopathologic data and details of surgical and adjuvant treatments were recorded. Outcome data were obtained, including postoperative complications, progression-free survival time, and disease-specific survival time.
RESULTS Complications occurred in 12 of 61 (19.7%) cats treated with unilateral mastectomy, 5 of 14 (35.7%) cats treated with staged bilateral mastectomy, and 13 of 32 (40.6%) cats treated with single-session bilateral mastectomy. Complications were significantly more likely to occur in cats undergoing bilateral versus unilateral mastectomy. Median progression-free survival time was longer for cats treated with bilateral mastectomy (542 days) than for cats treated with unilateral mastectomy (289 days). Significant risk factors for disease progression included unilateral mastectomy, tumor ulceration, lymph node metastasis, and tumors arising in the fourth mammary gland. Significant risk factors for disease-specific death included lymph node metastasis and development of regional or distant metastasis. Among cats that did not develop metastasis, unilateral mastectomy was a significant risk factor for disease-specific death. Treatment with chemotherapy was associated with a significantly decreased risk of disease-specific death.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results supported bilateral mastectomy for the treatment of mammary adenocarcinoma in cats to improve progression-free and disease-specific survival time. Performing bilateral mastectomy in a staged fashion may help to decrease the complication rate.