To describe a nonsurgical endoscopic technique for sex identification in Indonesian blue-tongued skinks (Tiliqua gigas) and to assess accuracy of contrast radiography of the hemipenile/hemiclitoral pouches.
42 clinically healthy Indonesian blue-tongued skinks between 6 months and 3 years old and weighing between 22 and 550 g.
Cystoscopy was performed under general anesthesia. Gonads were visualized through the transparency of the urinary bladder, and their gross morphology was described. Contrast was applied in the tail pouches before obtaining full-body radiographs. Two radiologists, blinded to the sex of the skink, evaluated the radiographs.
Cystoscopy was achieved in all 42 skinks. Visualization of the gonads through the urinary bladder was possible in 41 (98%; 95% CI, 87% to 99%) of the skinks, with 18 of them identified as males and 23 identified as females. Median procedure time was 60 seconds (range, 25 to 180 seconds) and was not associated with procedure order (–0.69; 95% CI, –1.83 to 0.45) or with the weight (0.02 g; 95% CI, –0.07 to 1.0) or the identified sex (11.7; 95% CI, –15.07 to 38.45) of the skink. Radiographs had a sensitivity of 69.6% (95% CI, 47.1% to 86.8%) and a specificity of 75.0% (47.6% to 92.7%) to identify female skinks. All the skinks recovered uneventfully.
Cystoscopic sex identification is feasible in Indonesian blue-tongued skinks of various age and size. Considering the difficulty in identifying their sex otherwise, this technique could provide a significant improvement in the veterinary care of this species. In this population, contrast radiographs showed limited accuracy for sex identification.
Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of cefovecin sodium after SC administration to Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni).
Animals—23 healthy adult Hermann's tortoises (15 males and 8 females).
Procedures—Cefovecin (8.0 mg/kg) was injected once in the subcutis of the neck region of Hermann's tortoises, and blood samples were obtained at predetermined time points. Plasma cefovecin concentrations were measured via ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with a noncompartmental model. Plasma protein concentration was quantified, and the percentage of cefovecin bound to protein was estimated with a centrifugation technique.
Results—Cefovecin was absorbed rapidly, reaching maximum plasma concentrations between 35 minutes and 2 hours after administration, with the exception of 1 group, in which it was reached after 4 hours. The mean ± SD time to maximum concentration was 1.22 ± 1.14 hours; area under the concentration-time curve was 220.35 ± 36.18 h•μg/mL The mean protein-bound fraction of cefovecin ranged from 41.3% to 47.5%. No adverse effects were observed.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of a single dose of cefovecin SC appeared to be well-tolerated in this population of tortoises. Results of pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that the 2-week dosing interval suggested for dogs and cats cannot be considered effective in tortoises; however, further research is needed to determine therapeutic concentrations of the drug and appropriate dose ranges.
To report clinical, surgical, and pathological findings in client-owned rabbits with histologically confirmed appendicitis.
Medical records for client-owned rabbits that had a histologic diagnosis of appendicitis were reviewed.
Median age of the rabbits at presentation was 24.0 months (range, 4 to 84 months). Seventeen cases occurred during the summer and fall seasons. Decreased appetite (17/19 rabbits), abnormal rectal temperature (hyperthermia, 9/16 rabbits; hypothermia, 4/16 rabbits), hypocalcemia (8/11 rabbits), and hypoglycemia (7/15 rabbits) were common signs. Abdominal ultrasonography and CT findings were suggestive of appendicitis in 6 of 8 rabbits and in 1 of 2 rabbits, respectively. Of the 6 rabbits that received medical treatment, 3 died at 48 hours, 1 died at 24 hours after hospitalization, and 1 died at 10 days after presentation; 1 rabbit was alive at 1,030 days after presentation. Of the 8 rabbits that underwent appendectomy, 3 died before discharge from the hospital and 1 died 113 days after surgery; 4 rabbits were alive at 315, 334, 1,433, and 1,473 days after presentation. The remaining 5 rabbits either died or were euthanized before treatment could be instituted. In each of the 19 rabbits, the appendix had evidence of severe inflammation with mucosal ulceration, heterophilic inflammation, and necrotic debris.
For rabbits with decreased appetite and an apparently painful abdomen, hyperthermia, hypocalcemia, or hypoglycemia, appendicitis should be considered as a differential diagnosis. Further comparisons of medical and surgical treatments are required to establish treatment recommendations for rabbits with appendicitis.