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  • Author or Editor: Gina M. Michels x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine pharmacokinetics of troglitazone in healthy cats after IV and oral administration of a single dose of the drug.

Animals—5 healthy ovariohysterectomized adult cats.

Procedure—Using a randomized crossover design, cats were given 5 mg of troglitazone/kg of body weight IV and 40 mg of troglitazone/kg orally. Blood and urine samples were collected after drug administration, and concentrations of troglitazone in plasma and urine were determined by use of high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results—Area-moment analysis was used to calculate pharmacokinetic variables. Terminal phase half-life was 1.1 ± 0.1 hours. Steady-state volume of distribution was 0.23 ± 0.15 L/kg. After IV administration, clearance was 0.33 ± 0.04 L/h/kg. Drug was not detected in urine samples. Mean bioavailability of orally administered troglitazone was 6.9%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The overall disposition of troglitazone in cats was similar to that reported in other species, including humans. Troglitazone has low and variable oral bioavailability. Clearance of the compound is moderate. Little if any unchanged troglitazone is excreted in urine; thus, metabolism and biliary excretion play predominant roles in elimination of the drug. On the basis of troglitazone pharmacokinetics in healthy cats, as well as on the basis of pharmacodynamics of the drug in humans and other animals, a regimen that uses a dosage of 20 to 40 mg/kg administered orally once or twice per day to cats will produce plasma concentrations of the insulin-sensitizing agent that have been documented to be effective in humans. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:775–778)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of protamine zinc insulin (PZI) on control of glycemia in cats with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus or poorly controlled diabetes.

Design—Clinical trial.

Animals—67 diabetic cats.

Procedure—34 cats with newly diagnosed diabetes and 33 cats with poorly controlled diabetes were treated with PZI twice daily for 45 days. Control of glycemia was assessed on days 7, 14, 30, and 45 by evaluation of clinical response, change in body weight, serum fructosamine concentration, blood glucose concentration measured 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 hours after administration of PZI, lowest blood glucose concentration, and mean blood glucose concentration during the 9-hour period after administration. Adjustments in dosage of PZI were made as needed to attain control of glycemia.

Results—For all cats, a significant increase in mean dosage of PZI and significant decreases in 9-hour mean blood glucose concentration, lowest mean blood glucose concentration, and mean serum fructosamine concentration were detected. For cats with poorly controlled diabetes, 9-hour mean blood glucose concentration and mean serum fructosamine concentration were significantly decreased on day 45, compared with day 0. Ninety percent of owners reported improvement or resolution of clinical signs by day 45.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that PZI was effective for control of glycemia in cats with newly diagnosed or poorly controlled diabetes and may be used as an initial treatment or as an alternative treatment in cats that do not respond to treatment with other types of insulin. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:38–42)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association