Case Description—A 2-year-old Morgan mare was evaluated because of a corneal ulceration.
Clinical Findings—An irregular, deep stromal corneal ulcer in an area of malacia was noted in the left eye. Hypopyon was present in the ventral portion of the anterior chamber with moderate aqueous flare. The nictitating membrane of the left eye had hairs originating from its leading edge that contacted the corneal surface.
Treatment and Outcome—General anesthesia was induced, and a bulbar pedicle conjunctival graft was performed. The conjunctiva at the leading edge of the nictitating membrane, including the aberrant hair follicles, was excised. Microscopically, a nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium, sebaceous glands, and hair shafts were present, confirming a choristoma of pilosebaceous origin at the leading edge of the nictitating membrane. Six weeks after surgery, the horse had no signs of discomfort, with no regrowth of the hairs; no loss of vision was evident.
Clinical Relevance—Ocular choristomas develop secondary to defective fetal cellular differentiation and are rarely reported in the equine literature. The choristoma in this horse contained ectopic hair follicles with hair growth as well as sebaceous glands. This finding emphasizes the importance of a thorough adnexal examination in horses with corneal disease.
Case Description—A 14-year-old 8.2-kg (18.04-lb) castrated male Cairn Terrier with chronic keratoconjunctivitis sicca in the left eye was evaluated because of severe blepharospasm and a black plaque of 3 weeks’ duration.
Clinical Findings—Abnormalities of the left eye included a decreased Schirmer tear test value and the presence of a brownish-black plaque in the center of the cornea. The plaque was surrounded by fibrovascular tissue except at the medial aspect where there was mild malacia of the adjacent corneal stroma.
Treatment and Outcome—The plaque was removed by superficial keratectomy, and a conjunctival graft was performed. Histologic evaluation of the plaque and surrounding cornea revealed ulceration, stromal necrosis, and chronic suppurative keratitis with fibrosis and neovascularization. Evaluation of plaque sections that were stained with Gram and Von-Kossa stains yielded negative results for bacteria and mineralization, respectively; examination of sections stained with periodic acid–Schiff stain revealed multiple intracytoplasmic inclusions in macrophages. Virus isolation and a PCR assay for canine herpesvirus yielded negative results. Transmission electron microscopy revealed collagen disruption with interspersed macrophages and apoptotic keratocytes; no viral particles or evidence of other infectious agents was observed. The graft healed without complication and was trimmed 2 weeks after surgery. Four months after surgery, the Schirmer tear test value remained decreased from reference limits despite topical tacrolimus treatment, and pigmentary keratopathy was present surrounding the graft.
Clinical Relevance—Corneal sequestra are rare in species other than cats. In this dog, it was possible that chronic keratoconjunctivitis sicca might have contributed to the development of the corneal sequestrum.
Case Description—An 11-year-old 72-kg (158-lb) sexually intact female alpaca was examined for diagnosis and treatment of hematuria of 4 months' duration.
Clinical Findings—Pigmenturia was detected by the owner when the alpaca was 8 months pregnant. Radiographic, ultrasonographic, vaginal speculum, and cystoscopic evaluation of the urinary tract revealed normal vaginal and urethral epithelia and increased bladder vessel tortuosity, with pulses of hemorrhage from the left ureter. Regenerative anemia and mild leukopenia were detected and serum urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations were within reference ranges.
Treatment and Outcome—Chronic hematuria resolved after unilateral nephrectomy of the left kidney, and no dysfunction was detected in the remaining kidney. Histologic evaluation of the kidney revealed a transitional cell tumor in the renal pelvis.
Clinical Relevance—Although anemia is common in South American camelids, hematuria is an uncommon sign of this condition. Chronic urinary tract infection, toxin ingestion, and neoplasia causing hematuria or hemoglobinuria should be considered in South American camelids with pigmenturia. Thorough and systematic evaluation of the urinary tract should be performed to locate the site of hemorrhage to treat hematuria appropriately.